How to format your references using the Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Gewin, Crunch time for multiple-gene tests, Nature. 445 (2007) 354–355.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.M. Raser, E.K. O’Shea, Control of stochasticity in eukaryotic gene expression, Science. 304 (2004) 1811–1814.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Nishida, S. Katamine, L. Manuelidis, Reciprocal interference between specific CJD and scrapie agents in neural cell cultures, Science. 310 (2005) 493–496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.P.A. Marimuthu, S. Jolivet, M. Ravi, L. Pereira, J.N. Davda, L. Cromer, L. Wang, F. Nogué, S.W.L. Chan, I. Siddiqi, R. Mercier, Synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds, Science. 331 (2011) 876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hooker, Logic-Based Methods for Optimization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2000.
An edited book
B.J. Doran, Putting Fear of Crime on the Map: Investigating Perceptions of Crime Using Geographic Information Systems, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
H.-T. Ma, M.A. Beaven, Regulators of Ca2+ Signaling in Mast Cells: Potential Targets for Treatment of Mast Cell-Related Diseases?, in: A.M. Gilfillan, D.D. Metcalfe (Eds.), Mast Cell Biology: Contemporary and Emerging Topics, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2011: pp. 62–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications.

Blog post
D. Andrew, What Your Brain Structure Says About Your Personality, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation-Disadvantaged Seniors: Efforts to Enhance Senior Mobility Could Benefit from Additional Guidance and Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Gerhart, Convex optimization techniques and their application in hyperspectral video processing, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, An Alternative to New York Hotels, if Not Welcome by All, New York Times. (2014) B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications
AbbreviationNonlinear Anal. Real World Appl.
ISSN (print)1468-1218
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance
General Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
General Medicine

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