How to format your references using the NeuroImage: Clinical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage: Clinical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strobl, M., 2014. General solution for quantitative dark-field contrast imaging with grating interferometers. Sci. Rep. 4, 7243.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pati, A.K., Braunstein, S.L., 2000. Impossibility of deleting an unknown quantum state. Nature 404, 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim, M., Metzler, R., Bar-Yam, Y., 2007. Global pattern formation and ethnic/cultural violence. Science 317, 1540–1544.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giampieri, G., Dougherty, M.K., Smith, E.J., Russell, C.T., 2006. A regular period for Saturn’s magnetic field that may track its internal rotation. Nature 441, 62–64.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, S.A., 2009. Mastering Financial Accounting Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Beydeda, S., Gruhn, V. (Eds.), 2005. Testing Commercial-off-the-Shelf Components and Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hessayon, A., 2016. Lead’s Life and Times (Part Three): The Philadelphian Society, in: Hessayon, A. (Ed.), Jane Lead and Her Transnational Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 71–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage: Clinical.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. GM Crops: An Uneasy Truce Hangs Over Europe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Airport Finance: Preliminary Analysis Indicates Proposed Changes in the Airport Improvement Program May Not Resolve Funding Needs for Smaller Airports (No. GAO-07-617T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grant, L., 2013. How Does a Principal Use Intention and Strategy in the Enactment of Advocacy Leadership? (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman, J., 2017. Profiles in Caution. New York Times BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strobl, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Pati and Braunstein, 2000; Strobl, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pati and Braunstein, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Giampieri et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage: Clinical
AbbreviationNeuroImage Clin.
ISSN (print)2213-1582
ScopeClinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Cognitive Neuroscience

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