How to format your references using the NeuroImage: Clinical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NeuroImage: Clinical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall, A., 2004. Virology. Src launches vaccinia. Science 306, 65–67.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kilpatrick, A.M., Ives, A.R., 2003. Species interactions can explain Taylor’s power law for ecological time series. Nature 422, 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarola, V.W., Park, K., Jain, J.K., 2000. Cooper instability of composite fermions. Nature 406, 863–865.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fernandez, J., Yang, K.T., Cornwell, K.M., Wright, J.D., Wilson, R.A., 2013. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Sci. Rep. 3, 2398.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tung, C.-H., Sheng, G.T.T., Lu, C.-Y., 2005. ULSI Semiconductor Technology Atlas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Serna, M. (Ed.), 2012. Algorithmic Game Theory: 5th International Symposium, SAGT 2012, Barcelona, Spain, October 22-23, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni, A., Saleri, F., Gervasio, P., 2014. Numerical differentiation and integration, in: Saleri, F., Gervasio, P. (Eds.), Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave, Texts in Computational Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 113–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NeuroImage: Clinical.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Recreate First Spark Of Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Preliminary Analysis of the Joint Planning and Development Office’s Planning, Progress, and Challenges (No. GAO-06-574T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, T., 2010. Trajectory Similarity Based Prediction for Remaining Useful Life Estimation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K., Lehren, A.W., 2013. Road Runners Facing Difficulty Months After Marathon Uproar. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hall, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hall, 2004; Kilpatrick and Ives, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kilpatrick and Ives, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Fernandez et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuroImage: Clinical
AbbreviationNeuroImage Clin.
ISSN (print)2213-1582
ScopeClinical Neurology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Cognitive Neuroscience

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