How to format your references using the Neurocritical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurocritical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Buchanan M. Economics: Meltdown modelling. Nature. 2009;460:680–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thomson M, Gunawardena J. Unlimited multistability in multisite phosphorylation systems. Nature. 2009;460:274–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Frebel A, Kirby EN, Simon JD. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. Nature. 2010;464:72–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Eisebitt S, Lüning J, Schlotter WF, Lörgen M, Hellwig O, Eberhardt W, et al. Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography. Nature. 2004;432:885–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiBattista M. Novel Characters. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Meier GEA, Sreenivasan KR, Heinemann H-J, editors. IUTAM Symposium on One Hundred Years of Boundary Layer Research: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held at DLR-Göttingen, Germany, August 12-14, 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. De Schryver E, Calus L, Derycke L, Bachert C, Gevaert P. Local Nasal Inflammation: T Cells and B Cells. In: Önerci TM, editor. Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurocritical Care.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Black Holes Are Even Stranger Than You Can Imagine. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Several Challenges Could Arise in Administering a Subsidy Program for DTV Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 May. Report No.: GAO-05-623T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wistrom CA. Perceptions of School Leaders Regarding the Benefits of Leadership Dashboards [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Suffolk County College Is Raising Tuition. New York Times. 2009 Apr 26;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurocritical Care
AbbreviationNeurocrit. Care
ISSN (print)1541-6933
ISSN (online)1556-0961
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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