How to format your references using the Neurocritical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurocritical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kruzic JJ. Materials science. Predicting fatigue failures. Science. 2009;325:156–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Clark JS, McLachlan JS. Stability of forest biodiversity. Nature. 2003;423:635–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wu L-A, Walther P, Lidar DA. No-go theorem for passive single-rail linear optical quantum computing. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1394.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ferretti F, Osio GC, Jenkins CJ, Rosenberg AA, Lotze HK. Long-term change in a meso-predator community in response to prolonged and heterogeneous human impact. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1057.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Zink M. Scalable Video on Demand. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Öchsner A, Altenbach H, editors. Design and Computation of Modern Engineering Materials. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ralph PJ, Wilhelm C, Lavaud J, Jakob T, Petrou K, Kranz SA. Fluorescence as a Tool to Understand Changes in Photosynthetic Electron Flow Regulation. In: Suggett DJ, Prášil O, Borowitzka MA, editors. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 75–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurocritical Care.

Blog post
1. Fang J. This Lego Microscope Actually Works! IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Protection of Pricing Information Under GSA Procurement for Telecommunications Services]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Apr. Report No.: B-231156.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gunther A. The Effects of Writing Task Choice on Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Students with ADHD [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Inspiring Horse Honored. New York Times. 2012 Jan 14;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurocritical Care
AbbreviationNeurocrit. Care
ISSN (print)1541-6933
ISSN (online)1556-0961
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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