How to format your references using the Neurocritical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurocritical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lastoskie C. Chemistry. Caging carbon dioxide. Science. 2010;330:595–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Piotrowska K, Zernicka-Goetz M. Role for sperm in spatial patterning of the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2001;409:517–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tsukahara T, Tanno Y, Watanabe Y. Phosphorylation of the CPC by Cdk1 promotes chromosome bi-orientation. Nature. 2010;467:719–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nishimura EK, Jordan SA, Oshima H, Yoshida H, Osawa M, Moriyama M, et al. Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination. Nature. 2002;416:854–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Castillo E, Cobo A, Jubete F, Pruneda RE. Orthogonal Sets and Polar Methods in Linear Algebra. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
1. Carachi R, Agarwala S, Bradnock TJ, Lim Tan H, Cascio S, editors. Basic Techniques in Pediatric Surgery: An Operative Manual. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ferrari EI. Translation and Interpretation of EU Multilingual Legal Acts: The Viewpoint of a Comparative Private Lawyer. In: Ruggieri F, editor. Criminal Proceedings, Languages and the European Union: Linguistic and Legal Issues. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurocritical Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientist At Work: Searching For Tiny Neutrinos In The South Pole’s Thick Ice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of FAA’s Collegiate Training Initiative as Mandated in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Aug. Report No.: GAO-12-996R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roy Chowdhury T. Tracking Carbon Flow during Methane Oxidation into Methanotrophs Using 13C-PLFA Labeling in Pulsing Freshwater Wetlands [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Coe A. Presidential Biographies. New York Times. 2017 Feb 16;MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurocritical Care
AbbreviationNeurocrit. Care
ISSN (print)1541-6933
ISSN (online)1556-0961
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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