How to format your references using the Neurocritical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurocritical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Paterlini M. Anthropology: The Iceman defrosted. Nature. 2011;471:34–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Miller LH, Greenwood B. Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science. 2002;298:121–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Murdoch W, Briggs CJ, Swarbrick S. Host suppression and stability in a parasitoid-host system: experimental demonstration. Science. 2005;309:610–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McClintock WE, Vervack RJ Jr, Bradley ET, Killen RM, Mouawad N, Sprague AL, et al. MESSENGER observations of Mercury’s exosphere: detection of magnesium and distribution of constituents. Science. 2009;324:610–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Banks RE, Sharp JM, Doss SD, Vanderford DA. Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Scuderi GR, Tria AJ, editors. Knee Arthroplasty Handbook: Techniques in Total Knee and Revision Arthroplasty. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhou J, Wen C. Decentralized Stabilization of Interconnected Systems. In: Wen C, editor. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurocritical Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Creepy, Crawly Maggots Are Actually A Medical Powerhouse [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Sep. Report No.: GAO-05-865.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Boyer MD. Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Case Touches a 2nd Amendment Nerve. New York Times. 2007 Nov 13;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurocritical Care
AbbreviationNeurocrit. Care
ISSN (print)1541-6933
ISSN (online)1556-0961
ScopeCritical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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