How to format your references using the Neural Systems & Circuits citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neural Systems & Circuits. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Check Hayden E. The automated lab. Nature. 2014;516:131–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Partridge L, Gems D. A lethal side-effect. Nature. 2002;418:921.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ghaffari HO, Nasseri MHB, Young RP. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nash P, Tang X, Orlicky S, Chen Q, Gertler FB, Mendenhall MD, et al. Multisite phosphorylation of a CDK inhibitor sets a threshold for the onset of DNA replication. Nature. 2001;414:514–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Neave EH. Modern Financial Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Roco MC, Bainbridge WS, editors. Nanotechnology: Societal Implications: Individual Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lin CY-Y, Chen J. Two-Stage Model of Societal Innovation. In: Chen J, editor. The Impact of Societal and Social Innovation: A Case-Based Approach. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neural Systems & Circuits.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Scientists Can’t Work Out Why The Radius Of A Proton Keeps Changing In Experiments. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Education of the New Public Executive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Norman CL. Perceptions of non-traditional programs within Missouri school districts. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. No ‘Yucks’ Allowed. New York Times. 2008;:NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeural Systems & Circuits
ISSN (print)2042-1001

Other styles