How to format your references using the NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C. (2015). Screening: Early alert. Nature, 521(7551), S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tani, K., & Stoltz, B. M. (2006). Synthesis and structural analysis of 2-quinuclidonium tetrafluoroborate. Nature, 441(7094), 731–734.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, G.-Z., Radtke, G., & Botton, G. A. (2012). Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM. Nature, 490(7420), 384–387.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kanwar, N., Scott, H. M., Norby, B., Loneragan, G. H., Vinasco, J., Cottell, J. L., … Boerlin, P. (2014). Impact of treatment strategies on cephalosporin and tetracycline resistance gene quantities in the bovine fecal metagenome. Scientific reports, 4, 5100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Estampe, D. (2014). Supply Chain Performance and Evaluation Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ogawa, N., & Shah, I. H. (Eds.). (2015). Low Fertility and Reproductive Health in East Asia (Vol. 11). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Naimpally, A., & Rosselot, K. S. (2013). Hazardous Waste. In K. S. Rosselot (Ed.), Environmental Engineering: Review for the Professional Engineering Examination (pp. 117–127). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 23). Step Into Pluto Time With This NASA App. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Guaranteed Student Loans: Lenders’ Interest Billings Often Result in Overpayments (No. HRD-88-72). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldstein, T. W. (2010). Writing in red: The East German Writers Union and the role of literary intellectuals in the German Democratic Republic, 1971-90 (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, May 12). They Say the Town Cars Are Three Wide on Broadway. New York Times, p. 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking
ISSN (print)1385-9587
ISSN (online)1573-7071
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Economics and Econometrics

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