How to format your references using the Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. Baby blues. Nature 433, 780–781 (2005).
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthews, H. D. & Solomon, S. Atmosphere. Irreversible does not mean unavoidable. Science 340, 438–439 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Fumagalli, M., O’Meara, J. M. & Prochaska, J. X. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang. Science 334, 1245–1249 (2011).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Matsuo, T., Gambe, Y., Sun, Y. & Honma, I. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V. Sci. Rep. 4, 6084 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan, S. Y. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography. (John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 2012).
An edited book
Proceedings of the 16th International Meshing Roundtable. (Springer, 2008).
A chapter in an edited book
Bouleau, N. & Denis, L. Construction of the Dirichlet Structure on the Upper Space. in Dirichlet Forms Methods for Poisson Point Measures and Lévy Processes: With Emphasis on the Creation-Annihilation Techniques (ed. Denis, L.) 41–81 (Springer International Publishing, 2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Planet Found Orbiting Two Stars By Noticing Its Warping Effect On Space-Time. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alternative Market Mechanisms for the Student Loan Program. (2001).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do, N. H. An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. (University of Phoenix, 2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. The Dog Wants to Go Out. Subversive Action Is Likely to Follow. New York Times 14LI12 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationNat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1759-5045
ISSN (online)1759-5053

Other styles