How to format your references using the Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyler, R. H. Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets. Nature 456, 770–772 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
Cockell, C. S. & Stokes, M. D. Ecology: widespread colonization by polar hypoliths. Nature 431, 414 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirk, P. D. W., Babtie, A. C. & Stumpf, M. P. H. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY. Systems biology (un)certainties. Science 350, 386–388 (2015).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Hayes, T. et al. Herbicides: feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature 419, 895–896 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein, P. D. Pulmonary Embolism. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016).
An edited book
Genomics, Obesity and the Struggle over Responsibilities. 18, (Springer Netherlands, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Satsu, H. & Shimizu, M. Food factors that regulate intestinal inflammation: evaluation of the factors by using a coculture system. in Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects (eds. Iijima, S. & Nishijima, K.-I.) 29–37 (Springer Netherlands, 2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. ‘Moonspike’ Project Plans To Crash A Spacecraft Into The Lunar Surface. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Registry Systems: Key Steps Need to Be Performed Before Modernization Proceeds. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brient, R. Performance considerations for Philippe Gaubert’s “Madrigal”. (California State University, Long Beach, 2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: News Analysis; The Center of Attention. New York Times A1 (1992).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationNat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1759-5045
ISSN (online)1759-5053

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