How to format your references using the Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Csontos, D. Exotic matter. Nature 464, 175 (2010).
A journal article with 2 authors
Raper, S. C. B. & Braithwaite, R. J. Low sea level rise projections from mountain glaciers and icecaps under global warming. Nature 439, 311–313 (2006).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinde, C. A., Johnstone, R. A. & Kilner, R. M. Parent-offspring conflict and coadaptation. Science 327, 1373–1376 (2010).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Laval, B. et al. Modern freshwater microbialite analogues for ancient dendritic reef structures. Nature 407, 626–629 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi, D. & Norris, M. Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004).
An edited book
Clinical Neuroimmunology: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. (Humana Press, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
Abrahams, C. Climate change and lakeshore conservation: a model and review of management techniques. in Ecological Effects of Water-Level Fluctuations in Lakes (eds. Wantzen, K. M. et al.) 33–43 (Springer Netherlands, 2008).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. NSFL: Botfly Removal From 5-Year-Old’s Eye. IFLScience (2014). Available at:’s-eye/. (Accessed: 30th October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Community-Based Correctional Programs Can Do More To Help Offenders. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ware, R. J. Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Their Interests in Reading As Defined By Engagement and Social Interaction When Using Sustained Silent Reading, SSR, and Peer Interests Reading Strategies, PIRS. (Lindenwood University, 2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. Karaoke and Confession. New York Times D4 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationNat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1759-5045
ISSN (online)1759-5053

Other styles