How to format your references using the Nature Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toomre, J. Solar physics. Order amidst turbulence. Science 296, 64–65 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
Dodds, D. R. & Gross, R. A. Chemistry. Chemicals from biomass. Science 318, 1250–1251 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
Sherman, D. H., Tsukamoto, S. & Williams, R. M. ORGANIC SYNTHESIS. Comment on ‘Asymmetric syntheses of sceptrin and massadine and evidence for biosynthetic enantiodivergence’. Science 349, 149 (2015).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
He, X., Mishchuk, D. O., Shah, J., Weimer, B. C. & Slupsky, C. M. Cross-talk between E. coli strains and a human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line. Sci. Rep. 3, 3416 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Durbin, P. A. & Reif, B. A. P. Statistical Theory and Modeling for Turbulent Flows. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010).
An edited book
fMRI: Basics and Clinical Applications. (Springer, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Aliev, R. A. & Guirimov, B. G. Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks. in Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks and Their Applications (ed. Guirimov, B. G.) 167–185 (Springer International Publishing, 2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. More Bright Galaxies Discovered In The Early Universe. IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. (2012).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olszewski, R. M. Donor Motivations for Donating to a Nonprofit Without a Previous Relationship. (Northcentral University, 2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines, M. Under Fire as It Begins, Voter Fraud Panel Meets. New York Times A18 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Medicine
AbbreviationNat. Med.
ISSN (print)1078-8956
ISSN (online)1546-170X
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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