How to format your references using the Nature Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaaderen, A. van. Chemistry. Colloidal molecules and beyond. Science 301, 470–471 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
Luk, Y.-Y. & Abbott, N. L. Surface-driven switching of liquid crystals using redox-active groups on electrodes. Science 301, 623–626 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
Sevenster, D., Beckers, T. & Kindt, M. Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear. Science 339, 830–833 (2013).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Tomlin, D. et al. Agent-specific responses in the cingulate cortex during economic exchanges. Science 312, 1047–1050 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hezaveh, A. SAS® 9 Study Guide. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007).
An edited book
The Oncogenomics Handbook. (Humana Press, 2005).
A chapter in an edited book
Mesiar, R., Li, J. & Pap, E. Pseudo-concave Integrals. in Nonlinear Mathematics for Uncertainty and its Applications (eds. Li, S. et al.) 43–49 (Springer, 2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Read Roald Dahl’s Heartbreaking Letter Urging Parents To Vaccinate. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Planned Use of Information Technology for the Space Station. (1987).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E, C.-C. The syntax of comparative correlatives in Mandarin Chinese. (University of Arizona, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. SoundCloud, Former Star In Streaming, Lays Off 173. New York Times B2 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Medicine
AbbreviationNat. Med.
ISSN (print)1078-8956
ISSN (online)1546-170X
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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