How to format your references using the Nature Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steeg, P. S. Perspective: The right trials. Nature 485, S58-9 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, B. G. & Goller, F. Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display. Science 303, 544–546 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
Baxt, L. A., Garza-Mayers, A. C. & Goldberg, M. B. Bacterial subversion of host innate immune pathways. Science 340, 697–701 (2013).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Pandur, P., Läsche, M., Eisenberg, L. M. & Kühl, M. Wnt-11 activation of a non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway is required for cardiogenesis. Nature 418, 636–641 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, R. Industrielle Feuchtemessung. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2003).
An edited book
Patel, M. The Role of Model Integration in Complex Systems Modelling: An Example from Cancer Biology. (Springer, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Shinar, J. & Glizer, V. Y. New Approach to Improve the Accuracy in Delayed Information Pursuit-Evasion Games. in Advances in Dynamic Games: Applications to Economics, Management Science, Engineering, and Environmental Management (eds. Haurie, A., Muto, S., Petrosjan, L. A. & Raghavan, T. E. S.) 65–103 (Birkhäuser, 2006).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Three Things We Have To Crack Before We Can Find Any Cures For Alzheimer’s. IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: FAA Has Implemented Some Free Flight Initiatives, but Challenges Remain. (1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gary, J. O. Women’s social networking: Steps that organize low-technology users with emergency needs. (Pepperdine University, 2011).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Chase Is Over, But Pressure Is Still On. New York Times B12 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Medicine
AbbreviationNat. Med.
ISSN (print)1078-8956
ISSN (online)1546-170X
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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