How to format your references using the Nature Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nature Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Dalton, R. Misconduct: the stars who fell to earth. Nature 420, 728–729 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Discher, D. E. & Eisenberg, A. Polymer vesicles. Science 297, 967–973 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wang, F., Lin, J.-S. & Liu, K. Steric control of the reaction of CH stretch-excited CHD3 with chlorine atom. Science 331, 900–903 (2011).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1.
Zhang, J., Xu, F., Hashimshony, T., Keshet, I. & Cedar, H. Establishment of transcriptional competence in early and late S phase. Nature 420, 198–202 (2002).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sarker, D. K. Pharmaceutical Emulsions. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013).
An edited book
1.
Making the History of Computing Relevant: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference, HC 2013, London, UK, June 17-18, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 416 (Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Jung, K. W. & Myung, S.-J. Technique, Interpretation and Clinical Application of Anorectal Manometry and Balloon Expulsion Test. in Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Motility and its Disorders (ed. Ghoshal, U. C.) 31–47 (Springer India, 2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nature Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Taub, B. Sierra Leone Is Now Officially Free Of Ebola. IFLScience https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/sierra-leone-now-free-ebola/ (2015).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Strategies for Addressing Financial and Competitive Problems in the Airline Industry. (1993).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Hidalgo, F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. (California State University, Long Beach, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodara, S. Artifacts From a Battle That Never Was. New York Times WE10 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleNature Medicine
AbbreviationNat. Med.
ISSN (print)1078-8956
ISSN (online)1546-170X
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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