How to format your references using the Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Hede, Antibiotic resistance: An infectious arms race, Nature. 509 (2014) S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.M. Yanega, M.A. Rubega, Feeding mechanisms: Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture, Nature. 428 (2004) 615.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Laskar, B. Levrard, J.F. Mustard, Orbital forcing of the martian polar layered deposits, Nature. 419 (2002) 375–377.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Sun, R. Olson, M. Horning, N. Armstrong, M. Mayer, E. Gouaux, Mechanism of glutamate receptor desensitization, Nature. 417 (2002) 245–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Port, Beyond Booked Solid, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
M.C. Gibbons, R. Bali, N. Wickramasinghe, eds., Perspectives of Knowledge Management in Urban Health, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Oshchepkov, Compensating Wage Differentials Across Russian Regions, in: C. Mussida, F. Pastore (Eds.), Geographical Labor Market Imbalances: Recent Explanations and Cures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 65–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Only One Person In History Has Ever Been Cured Of HIV. How Did It Happen?, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Natural Gas Pipeline Safety: Risk-Based Standards Should Allow Operators to Better Tailor Reassessments to Pipeline Threats, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Pundir, Surface pressure fluctuations due to an impinging underexpanded supersonic jet, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Corkery, B. Protess, Citigroup Pays $97.4 Million To End Inquiry On Oversight, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano-Structures & Nano-Objects
ISSN (print)2352-507X

Other styles