How to format your references using the Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.P. Landolt, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. Caffeine, the circadian clock, and sleep, Science. 349 (2015) 1289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z.R. Smith, J.A. Long, Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors, Nature. 464 (2010) 423–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
X.C. Liu, H.W. Zhang, K. Lu, Strain-induced ultrahard and ultrastable nanolaminated structure in nickel, Science. 342 (2013) 337–340.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.H. Bhatt, S.J. Otto, B. Depoister, J.R. Fetcho, Cyclic AMP-induced repair of zebrafish spinal circuits, Science. 305 (2004) 254–258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.J. Wiebe, Drug Therapy for Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
S.S. Al-Majeed, C.-L. Hu, D. Nagamalai, eds., Advances in Wireless, Mobile Networks and Applications: International Conferences, WiMoA 2011 and ICCSEA 2011, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, May 25-27, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Shinar, V.Y. Glizer, New Approach to Improve the Accuracy in Delayed Information Pursuit-Evasion Games, in: A. Haurie, S. Muto, L.A. Petrosjan, T.E.S. Raghavan (Eds.), Advances in Dynamic Games: Applications to Economics, Management Science, Engineering, and Environmental Management, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2006: pp. 65–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects.

Blog post
D. Andrew, The Emotion Centre Is The Oldest Part Of The Human Brain: Why Is Mood So Important?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices to Help Ensure Successful Major Acquisitions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.C. Okafor-Dike, The effect of leadership on economic development: A case study of Nigeria, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Packer, Revolutionary Roads, New York Times. (2015) BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano-Structures & Nano-Objects
ISSN (print)2352-507X

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