How to format your references using the Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.C. Horton, Boundary disputes, Nature. 406 (2000) 565.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Goyal, P.W. Zandstra, Stem cells: Chasing blood, Nature. 518 (2015) 488–490.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Sturm, C. Racine, K. Tape, Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic, Nature. 411 (2001) 546–547.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.T. Hemann, A. Bric, J. Teruya-Feldstein, A. Herbst, J.A. Nilsson, C. Cordon-Cardo, J.L. Cleveland, W.P. Tansey, S.W. Lowe, Evasion of the p53 tumour surveillance network by tumour-derived MYC mutants, Nature. 436 (2005) 807–811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Robson Wright, An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
A. Bhagat, Foods of Non-Animal Origin: Chemistry, Technology, Inspection Procedures, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P.W. Tse, J. Hu, A Fusion Approach with Application to Oil Sand Pump Prognostics, in: P.W. Tse, J. Mathew, K. Wong, R. Lam, C.N. Ko (Eds.), Engineering Asset Management - Systems, Professional Practices and Certification: Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2013) & the 3rd International Conference on Utility Management & Safety (ICUMAS), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 31–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects.

Blog post
J. Fang, A Contagious Cancer Is Spreading Among Several Shellfish Species, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Government Actions Affecting Rice Sales to Korea, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.L. Hogue, A Case Study of Perspectives on Building School and Community Partnerships, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dominus, A Resilient Figure Stumbles, and Her Fans Wince in Turn, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNano-Structures & Nano-Objects
ISSN (print)2352-507X

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