How to format your references using the Muscle & Nerve citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Muscle & Nerve. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wehrli B. Biogeochemistry: Conduits of the carbon cycle. Nature 2013; 503:346–347. Published online: November 21, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang Q, Wang X-B. Simulating of the measurement-device independent quantum key distribution with phase randomized general sources. Scientific reports 2014; 4:4612. Published online: April 14, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wessling M, Morcillo LG, Abdu S. Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities. Scientific reports 2014; 4:4294. Published online: March 6, 2014.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang Y, Gao Q, Lin Z, Zhang T, Xu J, Tan Y, et al. Constructing free standing metal organic framework MIL-53 membrane based on anodized aluminum oxide precursor. Scientific reports 2014; 4:4947. Published online: May 13, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coombs WT, Holladay SJ. Managing Corporate Social Responsibility. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Hau E. Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics. 2nd edition. (Renouard H von, editor). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Li P, Fang S-C. Chebyshev Approximation of Inconsistent Fuzzy Relational Equations with Max-T Composition. In: Lodwick WA, Kacprzyk J, editors. Fuzzy Optimization: Recent Advances and Applications. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; 2010. p. 109–124

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Muscle & Nerve.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA’s Upcoming Mars Rocket Completes Critical Design Review. IFLScience. Published July 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Satellites: The U.S. Geostationary Satellite Program Is at a Crossroad. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghadimian V. Renewable Energy Marketplace. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. Arts, Briefly; New Home for Private Art. New York Times. June 13, 2005:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMuscle & Nerve
ISSN (print)0148-639X
ISSN (online)1097-4598

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