How to format your references using the Muscle & Nerve citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Muscle & Nerve. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. Scientists, we need your swords! Science: 2008;320:312.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trampert J, van Heijst HJ. Global azimuthal anisotropy in the transition zone. Science: 2002;296:1297–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foley SF, Buhre S, Jacob DE. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction. Nature: 2003;421:249–252.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu H, Zhang H, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang J, Petrov V. Generation of crystal-structure transverse patterns via a self-frequency-doubling laser. Sci Rep: 2013;3:1085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong Q-C, Hornik T. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom, 2012.
An edited book
Hsu RC-H, Wang S, eds. Internet of Vehicles – Technologies and Services: First International Conference, IOV, Beijing, China, September 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. Vol 8662. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Larsen T, Smith BA, Rosenbloom B. Culture and Communication in International Marketing Channels. In: Manrai AK, Meadow HL, editors. Global Perspectives in Marketing for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the 1999 World Marketing Congress. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer International Publishing: Cham; 2015. p. 13–14

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Muscle & Nerve.

Blog post
Andrew E. Enormous Centipede Spotted in Texas. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: FTA Programs Are Helping Address Transit Agencies’ Safety Challenges, but Improved Performance Goals and Measures Could Better Focus Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lund BC. Physiological response to cycling at different pedal rates during high intensity interval training. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Adventures in Comics and the Real World. New York Times. March 26, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMuscle & Nerve
ISSN (print)0148-639X
ISSN (online)1097-4598

Other styles