How to format your references using the Muscle & Nerve citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Muscle & Nerve. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lorenz R. Planetary science. The glitter of distant seas. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003; 302:403–404. Published online: October 17, 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wijffels RH, Barbosa MJ. An outlook on microalgal biofuels. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2010; 329:796–799. Published online: August 13, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowman M, D’Avanzo C, Brewer C. Ecology. A national ecological network for research and education. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2009; 323:1172–1173. Published online: February 27, 2009.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Peng B, Ren X, Wang Z, Wang X, Roberts RC, Chan PKL. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate. Scientific reports 2014; 4:6430. Published online: September 19, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bacon CR. Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Wang D. Haptic Rendering for Simulation of Fine Manipulation. (Xiao J, Zhang Y, editors). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Breitenmoser A, Martinoli A. On Combining Multi-robot Coverage and Reciprocal Collision Avoidance. In: Chong N-Y, Cho Y-J, editors. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 12th International Symposium. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Springer Japan: Tokyo; 2016. p. 49–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Muscle & Nerve.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Are Allergies And Why Are We Getting More Of Them? IFLScience. Published October 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Training Partnership Act: Information on Training, Placements, and Wages of Male and Female Participants. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown JT. Evaluation of a social science simulation by uncertainty analysis and comparison. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. A Westchester Town With Acres of Open Land. New York Times. March 15, 2017:RE8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMuscle & Nerve
ISSN (print)0148-639X
ISSN (online)1097-4598

Other styles