How to format your references using the Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hannon GJ. RNA interference. Nature. 2002;418:244–51.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mühlenbruch B, Jochimsen MA. Research policy: Only wholesale reform will bring equality. Nature. 2013;495:40–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Guo F-Q, Okamoto M, Crawford NM. Identification of a plant nitric oxide synthase gene involved in hormonal signaling. Science. 2003;302:100–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Akimitsu J, Takenawa K, Suzuki K, Harima H, Kuramoto Y. High-temperature ferromagnetism in CaB2C2. Science. 2001;293:1125–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hornberger G, Wiberg P. Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 2005.
An edited book
1. Zhernokletov MV, Glushak BL, editors. Material Properties under Intensive Dynamic Loading. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Davis AB, Polonsky IN. Approximation Methods in Atmospheric 3D Radiative Transfer Part 1: Resolved Variability and Phenomenology. In: Marshak A, Davis A, editors. 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 283–340.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Secret Water Tunnel Discovered Under Ancient Mayan Temple. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Has Made Progress in Managing a Federal Security Workforce and Ensuring Security at U.S. Airports, but Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Apr. Report No.: GAO-06-597T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ji JH. Near-field characteristics of wall jets with tabs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grynbaum MM, Koblin J. Fox Settles Sex Harassment Suit as Another Host Abruptly Exits. New York Times. 2016 Sep 6;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Diagnosis & Therapy
AbbreviationMol. Diagn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1177-1062
ISSN (online)1179-2000
Molecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles