How to format your references using the Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Zasloff M. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature. 2002;415:389–95.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wortmann UG, Paytan A. Rapid variability of seawater chemistry over the past 130 million years. Science. 2012;337:334–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dong X, Wang Y, Xia Y. Re-building Daniell cell with a Li-ion exchange film. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6916.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Borchert R, Renner SS, Calle Z, Navarrete D, Tye A, Gautier L, et al. Photoperiodic induction of synchronous flowering near the Equator. Nature. 2005;433:627–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hübschmann H-J. Handbook of GC-MS. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Ciocan C. Levinas Concordance. Hansel G, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cleland N, Zakeri G, Pritchard G, Young B. Integrating Consumption and Reserve Strategies for Large Consumers in Electricity Markets. In: Fonseca RJ, Weber G-W, Telhada J, editors. Computational Management Science: State of the Art 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 23–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Mating Market Theory: The Math Of One-Night Stands And Long-Term Relationships. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission Can Further Improve Its Licensing Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Apr. Report No.: RCED-83-90.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kellogg A. Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is there a financial benefit? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. ‘Friday File’: The Whitney’s 1966 Debut (Now the Met Breuer). New York Times. 2016 Feb 26;C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular Diagnosis & Therapy
AbbreviationMol. Diagn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1177-1062
ISSN (online)1179-2000
Molecular Medicine
General Medicine

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