How to format your references using the Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Vargas-Parada, Pathology: Three questions, Nature. 488 (2012) S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.M. Azzalin, J. Lingner, Cell biology. Telomere wedding ends in divorce, Science. 304 (2004) 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Torre, P. Bartolini, R. Righini, Structural relaxation in supercooled water by time-resolved spectroscopy, Nature. 428 (2004) 296–299.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Nishimasu, X. Shi, S. Ishiguro, L. Gao, S. Hirano, S. Okazaki, T. Noda, O.O. Abudayyeh, J.S. Gootenberg, H. Mori, S. Oura, B. Holmes, M. Tanaka, M. Seki, H. Hirano, H. Aburatani, R. Ishitani, M. Ikawa, N. Yachie, F. Zhang, O. Nureki, Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease with expanded targeting space, Science. 361 (2018) 1259–1262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Rowlinson, A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
C. Rousseau, Mathematics and Technology, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Montalvo, C. Pineiro, M. Herrero, M. Bigeriego, W. Prins, Ammonia Abatement by Animal Housing Techniques, in: S. Reis, C. Howard, M.A. Sutton (Eds.), Costs of Ammonia Abatement and the Climate Co-Benefits, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 53–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Do Bats Find The Right Carnivorous Plants For Safe Roosting?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, HUD Information Technology: More Work Remains to Implement Necessary Management Controls, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Martinez, Personal narrative: The struggles and limitations of immigration experienced by an El Salvadorian refugee, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Kelly With, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Vietnam War; Campaign Focus on Vietnam Reviving Debates of the 60’s, New York Times. (1992) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular & Biochemical Parasitology
AbbreviationMol. Biochem. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0166-6851
ScopeMolecular Biology

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