How to format your references using the Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Smith, Why a macroeconomic perspective is critical to the prevention of noncommunicable disease, Science. 337 (2012) 1501–1503.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. Nicewicz, D.W.C. MacMillan, Merging photoredox catalysis with organocatalysis: the direct asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes, Science. 322 (2008) 77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.D. Halazonetis, V.G. Gorgoulis, J. Bartek, An oncogene-induced DNA damage model for cancer development, Science. 319 (2008) 1352–1355.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Matsumoto, K.E. Comatas, L. Liu, J.S. Stamler, Screening for nitric oxide-dependent protein-protein interactions, Science. 301 (2003) 657–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Minoli, Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
G. Luque, Parallel Genetic Algorithms: Theory and Real World Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
A.M. Luks, S.R. Hopkins, Lung Function and Gas Exchange, in: E.R. Swenson, P. Bärtsch (Eds.), High Altitude: Human Adaptation to Hypoxia, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 57–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Black-Hole-Scope Could Reveal the Mystery of how Cosmic Jets Form, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Contract Pricing: Subcontractor Prices Overstated on AN/TSQ-111 Communications Contract, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.P. Deolikar, Lecture Video Search Engine Using Hadoop MapReduce, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
-- Sophia Kirk, B. Mawr, HASTE: Aid to Britain, New York Times. (1941) REVIEW OF THE WEEK EDITORIALSE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMolecular & Biochemical Parasitology
AbbreviationMol. Biochem. Parasitol.
ISSN (print)0166-6851
ScopeMolecular Biology

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