How to format your references using the Mindfulness & Compassion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mindfulness & Compassion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon, K. (2014). Orthopaedics: Joint effort. Nature, 515(7528), S170-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milo, R., & Last, R. L. (2012). Achieving diversity in the face of constraints: lessons from metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1663–1667.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iguchi, I., Yamaguchi, T., & Sugimoto, A. (2001). Diamagnetic activity above Tc as a precursor to superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films. Nature, 412(6845), 420–423.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, J., Wu, F., Wu, S., Lam, C. L., Lin, X., & Wong, M. H. (2014). Biochar and Glomus caledonium influence Cd accumulation of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) intercropped with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance). Scientific Reports, 4, 4671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keiser, G. (2006). FTTX Concepts and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liu, D., Wang, L., & Tan, K. C. (Eds.). (2009). Design and Control of Intelligent Robotic Systems (Vol. 177). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomsen, H. S. (2006). Management of Acute Adverse Reactions to Contrast Media. In H. S. Thomsen (Ed.), Contrast Media: Safety Issues and ESUR Guidelines (pp. 19–25). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mindfulness & Compassion.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, September 29). Ig Nobel Prize Winner: Why I Lived Like A Badger, An Otter, A Deer And A Swift. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Acquisition Has Increased Costs, Reduced Capabilities, and Delayed Schedules (GAO-09-596T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beal, M. E. (2013). Predictive qualities of social characteristics and social integration on altruistic outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 17). Kershaw Delivers His Best Playoff Performance, Leaving Cubs Flustered. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gammon, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gammon, 2014; Milo & Last, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milo & Last, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Iguchi et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMindfulness & Compassion
AbbreviationMindfulness & Compassion
ISSN (print)2445-4079

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