How to format your references using the Mindfulness & Compassion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mindfulness & Compassion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holland, P. (2004). Developmental biology. The ups and downs of a sea anemone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5675), 1255–1256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krauss, L. M., & Chaboyer, B. (2003). Age estimates of globular clusters in the Milky Way: constraints on cosmology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5603), 65–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki, H., Imura, J.-I., & Aihara, K. (2013). Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals. Scientific Reports, 3, 1127.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Haddock, S. H. D., Dunn, C. W., Pugh, P. R., & Schnitzler, C. E. (2005). Bioluminescent and red-fluorescent lures in a deep-sea siphonophore. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5732), 263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Medhurst, D. (2008). A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Janicak, P. G., Marder, S. R., Tandon, R., & Goldman, M. (Eds.). (2014). Schizophrenia: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Federmann, C. (2012). A Machine-Learning Framework for Hybrid Machine Translation. In B. Glimm & A. Krüger (Eds.), KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mindfulness & Compassion.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 29). Watch Two Sarcastic Fringeheads Fight. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Education Should Provide Additional Guidance to Help States Smoothly Transition Children to Preschool (GAO-06-26). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fearrington, N. D. (2008). The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren) [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meier, J. S. (2013, March 6). Home Is Where the Harm Is. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holland, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Holland, 2004; Krauss & Chaboyer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krauss & Chaboyer, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Suzuki et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Haddock et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMindfulness & Compassion
AbbreviationMindfulness & Compassion
ISSN (print)2445-4079

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