How to format your references using the Mindfulness & Compassion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mindfulness & Compassion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kupferschmidt, K. (2015). Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6245), 223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weeds, A., & Yeoh, S. (2001). Structure. Action at the Y-branch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1660–1661.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dalton, C. A., Langmuir, C. H., & Gale, A. (2014). Geophysical and geochemical evidence for deep temperature variations beneath mid-ocean ridges. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6179), 80–83.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goodridge, H. S., Reyes, C. N., Becker, C. A., Katsumoto, T. R., Ma, J., Wolf, A. J., … Underhill, D. M. (2011). Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a “phagocytic synapse.” Nature, 472(7344), 471–475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hayward, A., & Weare, F. (2010). Steel Detailers’ Manual. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Saranto, K., Castrén, M., Kuusela, T., Hyrynsalmi, S., & Ojala, S. (Eds.). (2014). Safe and Secure Cities: 5th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2014, Turku, Finland, August 18-20, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 450). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Allinson, R. (2005). The Birth of Spiritual Economics. In L. Zsolnai (Ed.), Spirituality and Ethics in Management (pp. 61–74). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mindfulness & Compassion.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015, November 9). Sierra Leone Is Now Officially Free Of Ebola. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989 (No. NSIAD-89-102FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roan, R. (2017). Depth and Digital in Conversation: Practicing Marriage and Family Therapy Directly With Video Game Avatars (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2012, November 25). Girding for Anniversary Of Tragedy in Dallas. New York Times, p. A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kupferschmidt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kupferschmidt, 2015; Weeds & Yeoh, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weeds & Yeoh, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Dalton, Langmuir, & Gale, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Goodridge et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMindfulness & Compassion
AbbreviationMindfulness & Compassion
ISSN (print)2445-4079

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