How to format your references using the Mind & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mind & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. 2011: Medical research masterclass, Nature, 478(7368): S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boehr, D. D. and Wright, P. E. 2008: Biochemistry. How do proteins interact?, Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882): 1429–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Auerbach, B. D., Osterweil, E. K. and Bear, M. F. 2011: Mutations causing syndromic autism define an axis of synaptic pathophysiology, Nature, 480(7375): 63–68.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kitamura, H., Tsuneyuki, S., Ogitsu, T. and Miyake, T. 2000: Quantum distribution of protons in solid molecular hydrogen at megabar pressures, Nature, 404(6775): 259–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura, G. and Benton, B. C. 2017: Mastering AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Atay, F. M. (ed.) 2010: Complex Time-Delay Systems: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Understanding Complex Systems).
A chapter in an edited book
Rabung, S., Wieser, M., Thomas, A., Testoni, I. and Evans, C. 2016: Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the revised spontaneity assessment inventory (SAI-R), in C. Stadler, M. Wieser, and K. Kirk (eds) Psychodrama. Empirical Research and Science 2,. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mind & Language.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014: Vacation To The Moon For $150 Million, IFLScience,. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1977: USDA Proposal for Handling Conversions in ADPE Procurements. 092139. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans, A. M. 2017: Long-Term Sustainability of Surgical Operational Improvements Post Consultancy: A Multiple Case Study Analysis. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A. and Kramer, A. E. 2017: The Soviet Union Died, but Russia’s Use of Sexual Blackmail Lives On, New York Times, 11 January, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Boehr and Wright, 2008; Grayson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boehr and Wright, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kitamura et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMind & Language
AbbreviationMind Lang.
ISSN (print)0268-1064
ISSN (online)1468-0017
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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