How to format your references using the Mind & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mind & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, J. A. 2004: Sustainable hydrogen production, Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5686): 972–74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Daw, N. D. and Dayan, P. 2004: Neuroscience. Matchmaking, Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678): 1753–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vaccari, N. E., Edgecombe, G. D. and Escudero, C. 2004: Cambrian origins and affinities of an enigmatic fossil group of arthropods, Nature, 430(6999): 554–57.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wessberg, J., Stambaugh, C. R., Kralik, J. D., Beck, P. D., Laubach, M., Chapin, J. K., Kim, J., Biggs, S. J., Srinivasan, M. A. and Nicolelis, M. A. 2000: Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates, Nature, 408(6810): 361–65.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E. R., Saade, G. R., Miller, H. and Davidson, C. M. 2016: Obstetric Clinical Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Apostolico, A., Crochemore, M. and Park, K. (eds) 2005: Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 16th Annual Symposium, CPM 2005, Jeju Island, Korea, June 19-22, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Cheung, S., Dutertre, B. and Lindqvist, U. 2006: Detecting Disruptive Routers in Wireless Sensor Networks, in T. Kunz and S. S. Ravi (eds) Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 5th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2006, Ottawa, Canada, August 17-19, 2006. Proceedings,. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mind & Language.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016: Lost Section Of The Great Wall Of China Resurfaces After Drought, IFLScience,. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998: Student Loans: Limited Information Is Available to Determine How Students’ College Debt Affects Their School and Lifestyle Decisions. HEHS-98-97R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diddi, V. 2017: Digitally Controlled Microwave Power Amplifier Design Techniques for Wireless Communications. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010: How Broken Must College Football Be to Fix It?, New York Times, 12 November, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Daw and Dayan, 2004; Turner, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Daw and Dayan, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wessberg et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMind & Language
AbbreviationMind Lang.
ISSN (print)0268-1064
ISSN (online)1468-0017
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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