How to format your references using the Mind & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mind & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moritz, M. A. 2012: Wildfires ignite debate on global warming, Nature, 487(7407): 273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Halloran, M. E. and Longini, I. M., Jr 2006: Public health. Community studies for vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza, Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5761): 615–16.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, W. W., van Beek, L. P. H. and Bierkens, M. F. P. 2010: Climate change will affect the Asian water towers, Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5984): 1382–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alvarez, H. M., Xue, Y., Robinson, C. D., Canalizo-Hernández, M. A., Marvin, R. G., Kelly, R. A., Mondragón, A., Penner-Hahn, J. E. and O’Halloran, T. V. 2010: Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits copper trafficking proteins through metal cluster formation, Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5963): 331–34.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casadella, V., Liu, Z. and Uzunidis, D. 2015: Innovation Capabilities and Economic Development in Open Economies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Felsenstein, D. and Portnov, B. A. (eds) 2005: Regional Disparities in Small Countries. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Advances in Spatial Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Domínguez García, R., Schmidt, S., Rensing, C. and Steinmetz, R. 2012: Automatic Taxonomy Extraction in Different Languages Using Wikipedia and Minimal Language-Specific Information, in A. Gelbukh (ed.) Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 13th International Conference, CICLing 2012, New Delhi, India, March 11-17, 2012, Proceedings, Part I,. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mind & Language.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016: Single Cure Found For Three Neglected Diseases, IFLScience,. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981: Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations. HRD-82-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill, J. A. 2012: Classical Three-Body Systems and the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser Theorem. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. 2012: In New Digital Comics, Each Tap Holds a Surprise, New York Times, 31 May, F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moritz, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Halloran and Longini, 2006; Moritz, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Halloran and Longini, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Alvarez et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleMind & Language
AbbreviationMind Lang.
ISSN (print)0268-1064
ISSN (online)1468-0017
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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