How to format your references using the Microprocessors and Microsystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microprocessors and Microsystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.M. Kronenberg, Developmental regulation of the growth plate, Nature. 423 (2003) 332–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Wang, K. Ohgushi, Superconductivity in anti-post-Perovskite vanadium compounds, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3381.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Capozza, I. Barel, M. Urbakh, Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1896.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Lin, R.W. Burgess, B. Dominguez, S.L. Pfaff, J.R. Sanes, K.F. Lee, Distinct roles of nerve and muscle in postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse, Nature. 410 (2001) 1057–1064.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Bahgat, Energy Security, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
K. Gopalakrishnan, S.K. Khaitan, S. Kalogirou, eds., Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Chiappero-Martinetti, N. von Jacobi, Light and Shade of Multidimensional Indexes, in: F. Maggino, G. Nuvolati (Eds.), Quality of Life in Italy: Research and Reflections, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 69–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microprocessors and Microsystems.

Blog post
T. Hale, What Is This Bizarre Sea Creature Netted In China?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, James Webb Space Telescope: Project Facing Increased Schedule Risk with Significant Work Remaining, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I.N. Bavkar, In-Node Vehicle Classification and Identification, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, ‘Westworld’ Creators Speak of Seasons, Spoilers and Patience, New York Times. (2016) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroprocessors and Microsystems
AbbreviationMicroprocess. Microsyst.
ISSN (print)0141-9331
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles