How to format your references using the Microprocessors and Microsystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microprocessors and Microsystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Diringer, Climate policy: letting go of Kyoto, Nature. 479 (2011) 291–292.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Hasty, J. Vijg, Aging. Genomic priorities in aging, Science. 296 (2002) 1250–1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Foley, M. Tiepolo, R. Vannucci, Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones, Nature. 417 (2002) 837–840.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Wiechert, A.N. Halliday, D.C. Lee, G.A. Snyder, L.A. Taylor, D. Rumble, Oxygen isotopes and the moon-forming giant impact, Science. 294 (2001) 345–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.C. Lee, N.J. McCormick, Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Z. Huang, Theory of Parallel Mechanisms, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Azarmand, E. Neishabouri, Location Allocation Problem, in: R. Zanjirani Farahani, M. Hekmatfar (Eds.), Facility Location: Concepts, Models, Algorithms and Case Studies, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 93–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microprocessors and Microsystems.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Pulsating White Dwarf Whips Its Companion Star With Beam Of Particles, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Impact Aid: Most School Construction Requests Are Unfunded and Outdated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Galvan, A mixed-methods study of mathematics and science achievement of refugee students in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, A Local Board’s Coup On the Upper West Side, New York Times. (2001) 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMicroprocessors and Microsystems
AbbreviationMicroprocess. Microsyst.
ISSN (print)0141-9331
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture

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