How to format your references using the Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson, F. (2004). A meeting with Enrico Fermi. Nature, 427(6972), 297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattachan, A., & D’Odorico, P. (2014). Can land use intensification in the Mallee, Australia increase the supply of soluble iron to the Southern Ocean? Scientific Reports, 4, 6009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiessling, W., Simpson, C., & Foote, M. (2010). Reefs as cradles of evolution and sources of biodiversity in the Phanerozoic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5962), 196–198.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, S., Ho, S. C., Lam, T.-P., Woo, J., Yuen, P. Y., Qin, L., & Ku, S. (2013). Development and validation of a lifetime exposure questionnaire for use among Chinese populations. Scientific Reports, 3, 2793.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port, M. (2008). Beyond Booked Solid. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dym, H., Oliveira, M. C. de, & Putinar, M. (Eds.). (2012). Mathematical Methods in Systems, Optimization, and Control: Festschrift in Honor of J. William Helton (Vol. 222). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, D. C., Perini, A., & Tonella, P. (2008). A Goal-Oriented Software Testing Methodology. In M. Luck & L. Padgham (Eds.), Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VIII: 8th International Workshop, AOSE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 58–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 15). Scientists Reveal How Our Circadian Clocks Are Reset. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). NASA Program Costs: Space Missions Require Substantially More Funding Than Initially Estimated (NSIAD-93-97). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graber, M. E. (2013). Best practices in enhancement deals: Nonprofit and for profit theatrical collaborations [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc, J. (2017, March 2). Longer and Better. New York Times, F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dyson, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bhattachan & D’Odorico, 2014; Dyson, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bhattachan & D’Odorico, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kiessling et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMethodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
AbbreviationMethodology (Gott.)
ISSN (print)1614-1881
ISSN (online)1614-2241
ScopeGeneral Psychology
General Social Sciences

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