How to format your references using the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag H. Gene therapy rising? Nature. 2005;435(7041):530–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dandekar P, Doherty MF. Materials science. Imaging crystallization. Science. 2014;344(6185):705–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto H, Yamaguchi KE, Ono S. Questions regarding Precambrian sulfur isotope fractionation. Science. 2001;292(5524):1959.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Erlebacher J, Aziz MJ, Karma A, Dimitrov N, Sieradzki K. Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying. Nature. 2001;410(6827):450–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai Y. Practical Database Programming with Visual Basic.NET. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Garcia-Alfaro J, Navarro-Arribas G, Cuppens-Boulahia N, Capitani di Vimercati S de, editors. Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneus Security: 6th International Workshop, DPM 2011, and 4th International Workshop, SETOP 2011, Leuven, Belgium, September 15-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XV, 319 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Pradhan JP, Das K. Determinants of Regional Exports. In: Das K, editor. Manufacturing Exports from Indian States: Determinants and Policy Imperatives. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. p. 45–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Have Just Discovered There Are 3 Subspecies Of Snow Leopard. IFLScience. 2017; [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inadequacies in Data Processing Planning in the Department of the Interior. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sikorsky AA. Concentration enhancement and device fabrication for the improved performance of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2016;MM30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
AbbreviationMed. Sci. Sports Exerc.
ISSN (print)0195-9131
ISSN (online)1530-0315
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles