How to format your references using the Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert MI. Climate change. Farewell to fossil fuels? Science. 2010;329(5997):1292–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker RM, Bordenstein SR. Response to Comment on “The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia.” Science. 2014;345(6200):1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perrin RJ, Fagan AM, Holtzman DM. Multimodal techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature. 2009;461(7266):916–22.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wise M, Calvin K, Thomson A, et al. Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy. Science. 2009;324(5931):1183–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D. Internal Combustion Engine Bearings Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Meersman R, Tari Z, Herrero P, editors. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2007: OTM 2007 Workshops: OTM Confederated International Workshops and Posters, AWeSOMe, CAMS, OTM Academy Doctoral Consortium, MONET, OnToContent, ORM, PerSys, PPN, RDDS, SSWS, and SWWS 2007, Vilamoura, Portugal, November 25-30, 2007, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. XXXIV, 760 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaikh S, Chowdhury A, Banerjee AK, Sarkar J, Chakraborti S. Exercise and Matrix Metalloproteases in Health and Disease: A Brief Overview. In: Chakraborti S, Dhalla NS, editors. Proteases in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Dwarf Galaxies Around The Milky Way Agree With Dark Matter Model. IFLScience. 2017; [cited 2018 Oct 30 ] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Student Financial Aid: Potential Effect of Providing Education Tax Benefit Eligibility to Students Receiving VA Assistance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saldivar N. Understanding the impact of AB-12 on the child welfare workforce. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2011;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleMedicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
AbbreviationMed. Sci. Sports Exerc.
ISSN (print)0195-9131
ISSN (online)1530-0315
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles