How to format your references using the Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kurth R (2005) Obituary: Maurice R. Hilleman (1919-2005). Nature 434:1083
A journal article with 2 authors
Jazayeri M, Movshon JA (2007) A new perceptual illusion reveals mechanisms of sensory decoding. Nature 446:912–915
A journal article with 3 authors
Foth C, Tischlinger H, Rauhut OWM (2014) New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature 511:79–82
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gilbert DA, Zimanyi GT, Dumas RK, et al (2014) Quantitative decoding of interactions in tunable nanomagnet arrays using first order reversal curves. Sci Rep 4:4204

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nyce DS (2016) Position Sensors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Shah K, Lakshmi Gorty VR, Phirke A (2011) Technology Systems and Management: First International Conference, ICTSM 2011, Mumbai, India, February 25-27, 2011. Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Pinsent A (2013) Aquinas and the Second Person in the Formation of Virtues. In: Mooney TB, Nowacki M (eds) Aquinas, Education and the East. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 47–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Study Finds Recreational Cannabis Use Is Associated With Abnormalities In The Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring Vital Services Are Not Disrupted. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu H (2017) Three Papers on the Sociology of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs). Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2011) Former Arsenal Houses Museum in Kiev, Ukraine. New York Times TR2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
AbbreviationMed. Biol. Eng. Comput.
ISSN (print)0140-0118
ISSN (online)1741-0444
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles