How to format your references using the Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V (2013) Tracking metastasis and tricking cancer. Nature 494:133–136
A journal article with 2 authors
Person AL, Raman IM (2011) Purkinje neuron synchrony elicits time-locked spiking in the cerebellar nuclei. Nature 481:502–505
A journal article with 3 authors
Gershman SJ, Horvitz EJ, Tenenbaum JB (2015) Computational rationality: A converging paradigm for intelligence in brains, minds, and machines. Science 349:273–278
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Russell AG, Charette JM, Spencer DF, Gray MW (2006) An early evolutionary origin for the minor spliceosome. Nature 443:863–866

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bech S, Zacharov N (2006) Perceptual Audio Evaluation-Theory, Method and Application. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Allison C, Morgado L, Pirker J, et al (2016) Immersive Learning Research Network: Second International Conference, iLRN 2016 Santa Barbara, CA, USA, June 27 – July 1, 2016 Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Yan J, Lv T, Guo L, Zhang Z (2011) Credibility Evaluation of Information Service Platform Based on SOA-Extended. In: Lin S, Huang X (eds) Advanced Research on Computer Education, Simulation and Modeling: International Conference, CESM 2011, Wuhan, China, June 18-19, 2011. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 26–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Explore Chernobyl In 360° Vision 30 Years On From The Nuclear Disaster. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Common Interests of Government and Schools of Business and Administration in Improving Management in Government. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delaney RM (2014) A qualitative descriptive case study explaining professional development in community corrections. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fandos N, Shear MD (2017) List of Russia Sanctions Is Provided to Congress. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
AbbreviationMed. Biol. Eng. Comput.
ISSN (print)0140-0118
ISSN (online)1741-0444
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles