How to format your references using the Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2006) 2007 U.S. budget. NASA budget soars as shuttle lands. Science 313:280
A journal article with 2 authors
Miltat J, Thiaville A (2002) Ferromagnetism. Vortex cores--smaller than small. Science 298:555
A journal article with 3 authors
Stephens DW, McLinn CM, Stevens JR (2002) Discounting and reciprocity in an Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma. Science 298:2216–2218
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chakraborty S, Ji H, Chen J, et al (2014) Vector modifications to eliminate transposase expression following piggyBac-mediated transgenesis. Sci Rep 4:7403

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (2014) Energy Materials 2014. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Beziau J-Y, Chakraborty M, Dutta S (2015) New Directions in Paraconsistent Logic: 5th WCP, Kolkata, India, February 2014, 1st ed. 2015. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Moura Neto FD, da Silva Neto AJ (2013) Spectral Analysis of an Inverse Problem. In: da Silva Neto AJ (ed) An Introduction to Inverse Problems with Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Man-Made Climate Change Led To Hundreds Of Heatwave Deaths In Paris. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Compendium of Courses, 1997. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kovacev RJ (2008) Encouraging employee entrepreneurial spirit: A phenomenological case study of a large technology enterprise. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1999) Master of Her Cub Den at 82. New York Times 148

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical & Biological Engineering & Computing
AbbreviationMed. Biol. Eng. Comput.
ISSN (print)0140-0118
ISSN (online)1741-0444
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles