How to format your references using the Media, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Media, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Duve C (2010) The joy of discovery, Nature, 467: S5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici D and Karato S-I (2003) Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter, Nature, 425: 39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakakura A, Ukai A and Ishihara K (2007) Enantioselective halocyclization of polyprenoids induced by nucleophilic phosphoramidites, Nature, 445: 900–903.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Qiu S-Q et al. (2013) Diagnostic and therapeutic strategy and the most efficient prognostic factors of breast malignant fibrous histiocytoma, Scientific reports, 3: 2529.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo L, Maunder RG, Wang J and Yang L-L (2010) Near-Capacity Variable-Length Coding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kurosu M, ed (2016) Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Platforms and Techniques: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang G, Wang H, Tao X and Zhang J (2014) Finding Weighted Positive Influence Dominating Set to Make Impact to Negatives: A Study on Online Social Networks in the New Millennium, in Kaur H and Tao X (eds) ICTs and the Millennium Development Goals: A United Nations Perspective, Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 67–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Media, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Brain Cells Governing Overeating And Sugar Addiction Identified, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Administration of the Emergency School Aid Act by OE. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milliken DE Blood pressure measurement in the primary care provider setting: A project evaluating the blood pressure technique of nursing staff, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2013) 'Scrooge Has a Sense of Humor', New York Times, December 19, E13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Nakano, 2015; Moses, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bercovici and Karato, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hwang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedia, Culture & Society
AbbreviationMedia Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0163-4437
ISSN (online)1460-3675
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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