How to format your references using the Media, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Media, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fidock DA (2013) Microbiology. Eliminating malaria, Science (New York, N.Y.), 340: 1531–1533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mogk A and Bukau B (2010) Cell biology. When the beginning marks the end, Science (New York, N.Y.), 327: 966–967.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang P, Bertone JF and Colvin VL (2001) A lost-wax approach to monodisperse colloids and their crystals, Science (New York, N.Y.), 291: 453–457.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Ressler KJ et al. (2011) Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with PACAP and the PAC1 receptor, Nature, 470: 492–497.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen W, Xiao H, Wang Q, Zhao L and Zhu M (2016) Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Control. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Gueye CT and Molina MS, eds (2016) Non-Associative and Non-Commutative Algebra and Operator Theory: NANCAOT, Dakar, Senegal, May 23–25, 2014: Workshop in Honor of Professor Amin Kaidi. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gruber H and Holzer M (2008) Finite Automata, Digraph Connectivity, and Regular Expression Size, in Aceto L et al. (eds) Automata, Languages and Programming: 35th International Colloquium, ICALP 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 7-11, 2008, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Media, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) There’s No Evidence to Suggest There is Life on Comet 67P, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Tulare County Serving Rural-Migrant Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giles DM A study of remotely sensed aerosol properties from ground-based sun and sky scanning radiometers, Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) 'Physically Unscathed, But Hardly Untouched', New York Times, September 23, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fidock, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fidock, 2013; Mogk and Bukau, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mogk and Bukau, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ressler et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedia, Culture & Society
AbbreviationMedia Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0163-4437
ISSN (online)1460-3675
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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