How to format your references using the Media, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Media, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner MS (2007) Quarks and the cosmos, Science (New York, N.Y.), 315: 59–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson JB and Johnson KG (2001) Paleoecology. Measuring past biodiversity, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293: 2401–2404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jenkins N, Saam JR and Mango SE (2006) CYK-4/GAP provides a localized cue to initiate anteroposterior polarity upon fertilization, Science (New York, N.Y.), 313: 1298–1301.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Pichlmair A et al. (2006) RIG-I-mediated antiviral responses to single-stranded RNA bearing 5’-phosphates, Science (New York, N.Y.), 314: 997–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anaya-Lara O, Campos-Gaona D, Moreno-Goytia E and Adam G (2014) Offshore Wind Energy Generation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tjoa AM, Xu LD, Raffai M and Novak NM, eds (2016) Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems: 10th IFIP WG 8.9 Working Conference, CONFENIS 2016, Vienna, Austria, December 13–14, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdel-Fatao H, Li J and Liu J (2015) Unifying Spatial, Temporal and Semantic Features for an Effective GPS Trajectory-Based Location Recommendation, in Sharaf MA, Cheema MA and Qi J (eds) Databases Theory and Applications: 26th Australasian Database Conference, ADC 2015, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, June 4-7, 2015. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Media, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Large Volcanic Eruptions May Have Changed Climate and Altered Human History, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Telecommunications Network: NASA Could Better Manage Its Planned Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere EC Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary, Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) 'Coaches Come and Go, Except JoePa', New York Times, January 13, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Turner, 2007; Jackson and Johnson, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and Johnson, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pichlmair et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedia, Culture & Society
AbbreviationMedia Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0163-4437
ISSN (online)1460-3675
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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