How to format your references using the Media, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Media, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cardinale BJ (2011) Biodiversity improves water quality through niche partitioning, Nature, 472: 86–89.
A journal article with 2 authors
Catlos EJ and Sorensen SS (2003) Phengite-based chronology of K- and Ba-rich fluid flow in two paleosubduction zones, Science (New York, N.Y.), 299: 92–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen JC, Horton JD and Hobbs HH (2011) Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights, Science (New York, N.Y.), 332: 1519–1523.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Dong Y-J, Wang X-F, Yang S-W and Wu X-M (2014) High performance current and spin diode of atomic carbon chain between transversely symmetric ribbon electrodes, Scientific reports, 4: 6157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGuiggan P (2005) GPRS in Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Velásquez JD, Ríos SA, Howlett RJ and Jain LC, eds (2009) Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 13th International Conference, KES 2009, Santiago, Chile, September 28-30, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hogan M and Tacke M (2010) Titanocenes: Cytotoxic and Anti-angiogenic Chemotherapy Against Advanced Renal-Cell Cancer, in Jaouen G and Metzler-Nolte N (eds) Medicinal Organometallic Chemistry, Topics in Organometallic Chemistry, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 119–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Media, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Organic Almonds Recalled From Whole Foods For Containing High Levels Of Cyanide, IFLScience, (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Public Transportation: Washington Metro Could Benefit from Clarified Board Roles and Responsibilities, Improved Strategic Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene J Recognizing the “Muchness” in Art Education: a Historical Analysis of Developments in Education and Art Education Since the 1950s and the Finding Your Muchness Photoshop Curriculum, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) 'Irene Adds To Bad Year For Insurers', New York Times, August 29, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cardinale, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cardinale, 2011; Catlos and Sorensen, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Catlos and Sorensen, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedia, Culture & Society
AbbreviationMedia Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0163-4437
ISSN (online)1460-3675
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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