How to format your references using the Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shendure J. Journal club. A geneticist discusses a way to assess the effects of disease-causing gene mutations. Nature 2010;463:405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutvágner G, Zamore PD. A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex. Science 2002;297:2056–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood RA, Grotzinger JP, Dickson JAD. Proterozoic modular biomineralized metazoan from the Nama Group, Namibia. Science 2002;296:2383–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Togan E, Chu Y, Trifonov AS, Jiang L, Maze J, Childress L, et al. Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit. Nature 2010;466:730–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raynaud H, Arrow KJ. Managerial Logic. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Amara A, Rozeau O, editors. Planar Double-Gate Transistor: From Technology to Circuit. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Winter SS, Taube JS. Head Direction Cells: From Generation to Integration. In: Derdikman D, Knierim JJ, editors. Space,Time and Memory in the Hippocampal Formation, Vienna: Springer; 2014, p. 83–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses.

Blog post
Hale T. Reykjavík Turns Off Its Street Lights To Enjoy The Aurora. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Restructuring: Refocus Info Share Program on Business Processes Rather Than Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley MT. Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J. Flakes: These Monkeys Make Tools, but Don’t Use Them. New York Times 2016:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMédecine et Maladies Infectieuses
AbbreviationMed. Mal. Infect.
ISSN (print)0399-077X
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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