How to format your references using the Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
James RD. Materials science: Magnetic alloys break the rules. Nature 2015;521:298–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Juran I, Falcocchio J. Retrospective. George Bugliarello (1927-2011). Science 2011;332:50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bo T-L, Zhang H, Zheng X-J. Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand. Sci Rep 2014;4:5590.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Feng G-R, Lu Y, Hao L, Zhang F-H, Long G-L. Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems. Sci Rep 2013;3:2232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kukushkin A. Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Marder SR, Lee K-S, editors. Photoresponsive Polymers II. vol. 214. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Iyer KM. Osteoarthritis. In: Iyer KM, editor. General Principles of Orthopedics and Trauma, London: Springer; 2013, p. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses.

Blog post
Luntz S. Physicists Have A New Theory On How The Egyptians Built The Pyramids. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Major Federal Research and Development Agencies Are Implementing the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Qazzaz AL. A kinetic study of the radiolytic degradation of phthalates in aqueous solutions. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nuila R. Medical Misfits. New York Times 2017:SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMédecine et Maladies Infectieuses
AbbreviationMed. Mal. Infect.
ISSN (print)0399-077X
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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