How to format your references using the Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oppenheim J. Physics. For quantum information, two wrongs can make a right. Science 2008;321:1783–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto M, Hikosaka O. Lateral habenula as a source of negative reward signals in dopamine neurons. Nature 2007;447:1111–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Capozza R, Barel I, Urbakh M. Probing and tuning frictional aging at the nanoscale. Sci Rep 2013;3:1896.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Sullivan MC, Sprafke JK, Kondratuk DV, Rinfray C, Claridge TDW, Saywell A, et al. Vernier templating and synthesis of a 12-porphyrin nano-ring. Nature 2011;469:72–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson JL. Probability and Statistics for Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1997.
An edited book
Albano E, Parola M, editors. Studies on Hepatic Disorders. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Cooke HBS. Stratigraphic variation in Suidae from the Shungura Formation and some coeval deposits. In: Bobe R, Alemseged Z, Behrensmeyer AK, editors. Hominin Environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 107–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Watch A Gold Bar Get Crushed By A Hydraulic Press. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weekend Settlement: Potential Benefits, Costs, and Legal Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuquero JM. A meta-ethnographic synthesis of support services for adult learners in distance learning programs. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. When Artist Becomes Muse. New York Times 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMédecine et Maladies Infectieuses
AbbreviationMed. Mal. Infect.
ISSN (print)0399-077X
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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