How to format your references using the Médecine et Droit citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Médecine et Droit. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil V V. Jumbo. Nature 2000;406:239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jadamec MA, Billen MI. Reconciling surface plate motions with rapid three-dimensional mantle flow around a slab edge. Nature 2010;465:338–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nateri AS, Spencer-Dene B, Behrens A. Interaction of phosphorylated c-Jun with TCF4 regulates intestinal cancer development. Nature 2005;437:281–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogden SK, Fei DL, Schilling NS, Ahmed YF, Hwa J, Robbins DJ. G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling. Nature 2008;456:967–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michael E, Gillian H, Stefan K, Alex L. Gramsci. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Grandfield JF, Eskin DG, editors. Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 3 Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bernardi A, Decker B, Holz H, Muthig D, Nomura N. 1st Intelligent Office Appliances (IOA 2005): Knowledge Appliances in the Office of the Future. In: Althoff K-D, Dengel A, Bergmann R, Nick M, Roth-Berghofer T, editors. Professional Knowledge Management: Third Biennial Conference, WM 2005, Kaiserslautern, Germany, April 10-13, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 48–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Médecine et Droit.

Blog post
Fang J. Why Baby Planets Didn’t Just Fall into their Stars. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Challenges to the Adoption of Smart Card Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lam NN. The effect of racial disparities and adult supervision in Human Papillomavirus knowledge among female adolescents. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Kidnapped Boy Freed After Three Years. New York Times 2003:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMédecine et Droit
AbbreviationMédecine & Droit
ISSN (print)1246-7391
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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