How to format your references using the Médecine et Droit citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Médecine et Droit. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gates BD. Materials science. Flexible electronics. Science 2009;323:1566–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raymo ME, Mitrovica JX. Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial. Nature 2012;483:453–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn Y-Y, Bagrow JP, Lehmann S. Link communities reveal multiscale complexity in networks. Nature 2010;466:761–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Matsui T, Agrawal A, Nahata A, Vardeny ZV. Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures. Nature 2007;446:517–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller RE. Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
Russell I, editor. Images, Representations and Heritage: Moving beyond Modern Approaches to Archaeology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Dastani M, Floor C, Meyer J-JC. Programming Agents with Emotions. In: Bosse T, Broekens J, Dias J, van der Zwaan J, editors. Emotion Modeling: Towards Pragmatic Computational Models of Affective Processes, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Médecine et Droit.

Blog post
Andrew E. Playing With Fire: The Economics And Network Of Fire And Haze. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Competition Issues in International Satellite Communications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummings AE. Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays: Phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R. During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times 2017:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMédecine et Droit
AbbreviationMédecine & Droit
ISSN (print)1246-7391
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles