How to format your references using the Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rouault TA. Microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria prefer heme. Science. 2004;305(5690):1577-1578.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andrew P, Barnes WL. Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons. Science. 2004;306(5698):1002-1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaan HYK, Hackney DD, Kozielski F. The structure of the kinesin-1 motor-tail complex reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. Science. 2011;333(6044):883-885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keller A, Zhuang H, Chi Q, Vosshall LB, Matsunami H. Genetic variation in a human odorant receptor alters odour perception. Nature. 2007;449(7161):468-472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Balanov A. Synchronization: From Simple to Complex. (Janson N, Postnov D, Sosnovtseva O, eds.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Feng Q, Zhao W, Yu X, Shi Y. Exploration of Integrated Course Project Mode of the Internet of Things Engineering Based on the Relevance Theory. In: Che W, Han Q, Wang H, et al., eds. Social Computing: Second International Conference of Young Computer Scientists, Engineers and Educators, ICYCSEE 2016, Harbin, China, August 20-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2016:26-31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes.

Blog post
Luntz S. First Surviving Panda Triplets Cute As They Sound. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration: Actions and Plans to Build a Results-Oriented Culture. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marcheschi RL. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding individuals with epilepsy by marriage and family therapists and social workers. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D. Deconstruct This! New York Times. September 15, 2002:78.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes
ISSN (print)2542-4548

Other styles