How to format your references using the Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heymann DL. Ebola: learn from the past. Nature. 2014;514(7522):299-300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaughn D, Strathmann RR. Predators induce cloning in echinoderm larvae. Science. 2008;319(5869):1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliss TVP, Collingridge GL, Laroche S. Neuroscience. ZAP and ZIP, a story to forget. Science. 2006;313(5790):1058-1059.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Carlsbecker A, Lee J-Y, Roberts CJ, et al. Cell signalling by microRNA165/6 directs gene dose-dependent root cell fate. Nature. 2010;465(7296):316-321.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke B, Seidenberg R, Althoff MP. UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Nagel WE, Kröner DB, Resch MM, eds. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ’10: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhodes R. Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health. In: Boylan M, ed. Public Health Policy and Ethics. International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005:73-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes.

Blog post
Andrew E. Biology’s Holy Grail: The Species And Its Controversial Recent History. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Activities of the Economic Opportunities Development Corporation of San Antonio and Bexar County, Texas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahebjame M. Marriage: An authentic Iranian experience of the modern. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C. Sigh No More; Let’s Twist and Shout. New York Times. December 16, 2015:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes
ISSN (print)2542-4548

Other styles