How to format your references using the Materials Letters: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Letters: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Geldner, Botany. Making phloem--a near-death experience, Science. 345 (2014) 875–876.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Clusella-Trullas, S.L. Chown, Comment on “Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches,” Science. 332 (2011) 537; author reply 537.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. de la Mare, N. Gales, M. Mangel, Science and Law. Applying scientific principles in international law on whaling, Science. 345 (2014) 1125–1126.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.A. Bonev, E. Schwegler, T. Ogitsu, G. Galli, A quantum fluid of metallic hydrogen suggested by first-principles calculations, Nature. 431 (2004) 669–672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Ndjountche, Digital Electronics 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
M. Cezon, Y. Wolfsthal, eds., Towards a Service-Based Internet. ServiceWave 2010 Workshops: International Workshops, OCS, EMSOA, SMART, and EDBPM 2010, Ghent, Belgium, December 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Tariq, A. Shaukat, S.A. Khan, A Gaussian Mixture Model Based System for Detection of Macula in Fundus Images, in: T. Huang, Z. Zeng, C. Li, C.S. Leung (Eds.), Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Letters: X.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How We Can Make Super-Fast Hyperloop Travel a Reality, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Slotting Fees: Effort to Study the Use of These Payments in the Grocery Industry, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.K. Chellamuthu, Structured Population Models: Numerical Methods and Application to Frogs Infected with Chytridiomycosis, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, A. Blinder, N. Najar, Drinks at a Bar, Ethnic Insults, Then Gunshots, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Letters: X
ISSN (print)2590-1508

Other styles