How to format your references using the Materials & Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials & Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.J. Koroshetz, Perspective: time to tackle blood pressure, Nature. 510 (2014) S4.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.P. Bunge, S.P. Grand, Mesozoic plate-motion history below the northeast Pacific Ocean from seismic images of the subducted Farallon slab, Nature. 405 (2000) 337–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Pawlowski, R.I. Dunbar, A. Lipowicz, Tall men have more reproductive success, Nature. 403 (2000) 156.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Miaudet, A. Derré, M. Maugey, C. Zakri, P.M. Piccione, R. Inoubli, P. Poulin, Shape and temperature memory of nanocomposites with broadened glass transition, Science. 318 (2007) 1294–1296.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.R. Islam, J.S. Islam, G.M. Zatzman, M.A.H. Mughal, M.S. Rahman, The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering, John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
P. Degano, J. Guttman, F. Martinelli, eds., Formal Aspects in Security and Trust: 5th International Workshop, FAST 2008 Malaga, Spain, October 9-10, 2008 Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Ghosh, A. Joshi, S. Tripathi, Empirical Evaluation of Multimodal Input Interactions, in: S. Yamamoto (Ed.), Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Interaction Design: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials & Design.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, John Glenn’s Life In Pictures, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Internet: Federal Web-based Complaint Handling, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.J. Wahl, Agustín Barrios and musical identity: Tangos in early twentieth-century guitar repertory, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, A.E. Kramer, S. Reed, Gazprom Makes Concessions to E.U., Defusing an Antitrust Standoff, New York Times. (2017) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials & Design
AbbreviationMater. Des.
ISSN (print)0264-1275
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

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