How to format your references using the Marine & Freshwater Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine & Freshwater Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). NASA pays the price of its dash for Mars. Nature 404, 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, E., and Jaeger, H. M. (2011). Materials science. Through thick and thin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, 1230–1231.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krupic, J., Burgess, N., and O’Keefe, J. (2012). Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, 853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Singer, P. A., Berndtson, K., Tracy, C. S., Cohen, E. R. M., Masum, H., Lavery, J. V., and Daar, A. S. (2007). A tough transition. Nature 449, 160–163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allman, K., and Nogales, X. E. D. (2015). ‘Impact Investment’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ.)
An edited book
Correia, L., Reis, L. P., and Cascalho, J. (Eds.) (2013). ‘Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 16th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2013, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal, September 9-12, 2013. Proceedings’. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)
A chapter in an edited book
Kleppel, G. S., Porter, D. E., and DeVoe, M. R. (2006). Urban Typology and Estuarine Biodiversity in Rapidly Developing Coastal Watersheds. In ‘Changing Land Use Patterns in the Coastal Zone: Managing Environmental Quality in Rapidly Developing Regions’. (Eds G. S. Kleppel, M. R. DeVoe, and M. V. Rawson.) Springer Series on Evironmental Management. pp. 69–89. (Springer: New York, NY.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine & Freshwater Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). Meet The ‘Living Rock’. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Developing and Using Questionnaires. PEMD-10.1.7. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heredia, R. (2017). Leadership Development in a Multigenerational Workplace: An Exploratory Study. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr., and Baker, A. L. (2017). Trial to Open in Case That Highlights Complaints About Justice System. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt 2000; Brown and Jaeger 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Jaeger 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Singer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine & Freshwater Research
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Res.
ISSN (print)1323-1650
ISSN (online)1448-6059
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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