How to format your references using the Marine & Freshwater Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine & Freshwater Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rashed, R. (2002). Portraits of science. A polymath in the 10th century. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, 773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lau, H., and Maniscalco, B. (2010). Neuroscience. Should confidence be trusted? Science (New York, N.Y.) 329, 1478–1479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bielawski, C. W., Benitez, D., and Grubbs, R. H. (2002). An ‘endless’ route to cyclic polymers. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, 2041–2044.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, L., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., and Li, X. (2013). How human location-specific contact patterns impact spatial transmission between populations? Scientific reports 3, 1468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Butler, K. C. (2016). ‘Multinational Finance’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ.)
An edited book
Hockenbery, D. M. (Ed.) (2016). ‘Mitochondria and Cell Death’. (Springer: New York, NY.)
A chapter in an edited book
Cardoso, M., Carvalho, J. V., and Ramos, I. (2009). Open Innovation Communities…or should it be “Networks”. In ‘Web 2.0: The Business Model’. (Eds M. D. Lytras, E. Damiani, and P. Ordóñez de Pablos.) pp. 1–22. (Springer US: Boston, MA.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine & Freshwater Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). El Niño Has Definitely Ended, But Climate Change Nightmares Are Here To Stay. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970). Savings Possible by Buying Automatic Data Processing Equipment or by Leasing It From Commercial Leasing Firms. B-114829. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maloney, J. L. (2015). Analyzing Students’ Personal Characteristics to Determine Study Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shoumali, K., and Hubbard, B. (2017). U.S. Strike on Syria Fuels Uncertainty on the Ground. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rashed 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rashed 2002; Lau and Maniscalco 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lau and Maniscalco 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine & Freshwater Research
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Res.
ISSN (print)1323-1650
ISSN (online)1448-6059
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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