How to format your references using the Marine & Freshwater Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine & Freshwater Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gillett, N. P. (2005). Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation. Nature 437, 496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Florence, T. J., and Reiser, M. B. (2015). Neuroscience: hot on the trail of temperature processing. Nature 519, 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tong, S., Meagher, S., and Vollenhoven, B. (2002). Sonography: dizygotic twin survival in early pregnancy. Nature 416, 142.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hiller, N. L., Bhattacharjee, S., van Ooij, C., Liolios, K., Harrison, T., Lopez-Estraño, C., and Haldar, K. (2004). A host-targeting signal in virulence proteins reveals a secretome in malarial infection. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306, 1934–1937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bailly, P. (2013). ‘Materials and Structures under Shock and Impact’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, USA.)
An edited book
Nibanupudi, H. K., and Shaw, R. (Eds.) (2015). ‘Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction’. (Springer Japan: Tokyo.)
A chapter in an edited book
Ifju, P. G. (2008). Composite Materials. In ‘Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics’. (Ed W. N. Sharpe.) pp. 97–124. (Springer US: Boston, MA.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine & Freshwater Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). UK Woman’s Transplanted Kidney Is Now 100 Years Old. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Airline Competition: Fares and Concentration at Small-City Airports. RCED-91-51. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, M. L. (2017). The Power of Spoken Word: Oral History As Social Work Pedagogy. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008). A Cornucopia Of Produce. New York Times, NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gillett 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gillett 2005; Florence and Reiser 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Florence and Reiser 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Hiller et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine & Freshwater Research
AbbreviationMar. Freshw. Res.
ISSN (print)1323-1650
ISSN (online)1448-6059
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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