How to format your references using the Machine Vision and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Vision and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V.: The outlook for a cure. Nature. 466, S11-3 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bobrow, M., Thomas, S.: Patents in a genetic age. Nature. 409, 763–764 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Marinova, M.M., Aharonson, O., Asphaug, E.: Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. Nature. 453, 1216–1219 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ding, B.-S., Nolan, D.J., Butler, J.M., James, D., Babazadeh, A.O., Rosenwaks, Z., Mittal, V., Kobayashi, H., Shido, K., Lyden, D., Sato, T.N., Rabbany, S.Y., Rafii, S.: Inductive angiocrine signals from sinusoidal endothelium are required for liver regeneration. Nature. 468, 310–315 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langlois, P.: Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., Stackebrandt, E. eds: The Prokaryotes: Volume 4: Bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria. Springer US, New York, NY (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Brouquet, A., Andreou, A., Shindoh, J., Vauthey, J.-N.: Methods to Improve Resectability of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. In: Vauthey, J.-N. and Brouquet, A. (eds.) Multidisciplinary Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. pp. 57–67. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Vision and Applications.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Diesel Cars Emitting More Pollution During Cold Weather,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Safety: FAA Efforts Have Improved Safety, but Challenges Remain in Key Areas. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2013)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Browning, A.: An electronic on-board recorder for intermodal drayage operations, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L.: Rebate Checks to Lose Their Punch This Year, (2008)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Vision and Applications
AbbreviationMach. Vis. Appl.
ISSN (print)0932-8092
ISSN (online)1432-1769
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles