How to format your references using the Machine Vision and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Vision and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paulus, M.P.: Decision-making dysfunctions in psychiatry--altered homeostatic processing? Science. 318, 602–606 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
West, S.A., Sheldon, B.C.: Constraints in the evolution of sex ratio adjustment. Science. 295, 1685–1688 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., Yoshida, K., Matsui, Y.: A histone H3 methyltransferase controls epigenetic events required for meiotic prophase. Nature. 438, 374–378 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leroy, B.J., Lemay, S.G., Kong, J., Dekker, C.: Electrical generation and absorption of phonons in carbon nanotubes. Nature. 432, 371–374 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loughran, M.: Auditing for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Field, J., Vasconcelos, V.T. eds: Coordination Models and Languages: 11th International Conference, COORDINATION 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Finazzi, G., Barbui, T.: Therapy of Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia. In: Verstovsek, S. and Tefferi, A. (eds.) Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Biology and Therapy. pp. 97–115. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Vision and Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Cassini Captures Spectacular View Of Sunlight Glinting Off Of Titan’s Seas


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2010 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldgof, G.M.: Drug Target Discovery Using Designer Drug Sensitive Yeast, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold, K.: In Merkel, a Lofty Symbol for German Women, but an Anomaly, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Vision and Applications
AbbreviationMach. Vis. Appl.
ISSN (print)0932-8092
ISSN (online)1432-1769
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles