How to format your references using the Machine Vision and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Vision and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atran, S.: Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science. 299, 1534–1539 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Loeb, A., Waxman, E.: Cosmic gamma-ray background from structure formation in the intergalactic medium. Nature. 405, 156–158 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener, T.W., Spiller, D.A., Losos, J.B.: Predators increase the risk of catastrophic extinction of prey populations. Nature. 412, 183–186 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Foster, M.A., Salem, R., Geraghty, D.F., Turner-Foster, A.C., Lipson, M., Gaeta, A.L.: Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope. Nature. 456, 81–84 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hersent, O., Petit, J.-P., Gurle, D.: IP Telephony. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Maeno, T., Sawatani, Y., Hara, T. eds: Serviceology for Designing the Future: Selected and Edited Papers of the 2nd International Conference on Serviceology. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Kunihiro, N.: On Optimal Bounds of Small Inverse Problems and Approximate GCD Problems with Higher Degree. In: Gollmann, D. and Freiling, F.C. (eds.) Information Security: 15th International Conference, ISC 2012, Passau, Germany, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. pp. 55–69. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Vision and Applications.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Milky Way Arm Containing Our Solar System May Be Bigger Than We Thought,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Chapter 1 Accountability: Greater Focus on Program Goals Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, P.D.: Characterizing polymers for cardiovascular devices, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Back to America, Trailing His Legend, (1999)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Vision and Applications
AbbreviationMach. Vis. Appl.
ISSN (print)0932-8092
ISSN (online)1432-1769
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles