How to format your references using the Machine Vision and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Vision and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zülicke, U.: Applied physics. Ultrasmall wires get excited. Science. 295, 810–811 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Katija, K., Dabiri, J.O.: A viscosity-enhanced mechanism for biogenic ocean mixing. Nature. 460, 624–626 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lower, S.K., Hochella, M.F., Jr, Beveridge, T.J.: Bacterial recognition of mineral surfaces: nanoscale interactions between Shewanella and alpha-FeOOH. Science. 292, 1360–1363 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pan, X., Eathiraj, S., Munson, M., Lambright, D.G.: TBC-domain GAPs for Rab GTPases accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a dual-finger mechanism. Nature. 442, 303–306 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker, H.K., Martin, G.S.: Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Kox, A.J. ed: The Scientific Correspondence of H. A. Lorentz: Volume I. Springer, New York, NY (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Hale, M.R.: Apostles of Freedom: Pro-French American Democrats and Thomas Paine as Religious Crusaders. In: Cleary, S. and Stabell, I.L. (eds.) New Directions in Thomas Paine Studies. pp. 69–91. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Vision and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Extensive freshwater reservoirs have been discovered beneath the oceans,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2012)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spowart, S.A.: Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation: Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Pain, Is There A Connection For Public Health?, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M.: Mom and Pop Own Fewer Rentals, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Vision and Applications
AbbreviationMach. Vis. Appl.
ISSN (print)0932-8092
ISSN (online)1432-1769
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles