How to format your references using the Lupus Science & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lupus Science & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hernandez ER. No room on the carousel for meeting of like minds. Nature 2000;407:285.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shang Y, Brown M. Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science 2002;295:2465–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lammert E, Cleaver O, Melton D. Induction of pancreatic differentiation by signals from blood vessels. Science 2001;294:564–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yuwen L, Zhang F-L, Chen Q-H, et al. The role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in bacillamide C biosynthesis by Bacillus atrophaeus C89. Sci Rep 2013;3:1753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett JE, Johnson WB. Ethics Desk Reference for Counselors. Alexandria, VA, USA: : American Counseling Association 2015.
An edited book
Puhl W, Günther K-P, Dieppe P, et al., editors. EUROHIP: Health Technology Assessment of Hip Arthroplasty in Europe. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Hens T, Rieger MO. Multiple-Periods Model. In: Rieger MO, ed. Financial Economics: A Concise Introduction to Classical and Behavioral Finance. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2016. 211–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lupus Science & Medicine.

Blog post
Hamilton K. We Have A Vaccine For Six Cancers; Why Are Less Than Half Of Kids Getting It? IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: FAA’s Procurement of Explosives Detection Devices. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marchek SP. A quantitative investigation of the Technology Obsolescence Model (TOM) factors that influence the decision to replace obsolete systems. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ahmed A, Nunez P, Blinder A. From Haiti to Florida, a Hurricane’s Trail of Disaster and Near Misses. New York Times. 2016;:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLupus Science & Medicine
AbbreviationLupus Sci. Med.
ISSN (online)2053-8790

Other styles