How to format your references using the Lupus Science & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lupus Science & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fulweiler RW. Microbiology. Fantastic fixers. Science 2009;326:377–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prüfer K, Meyer M. Anthropology. Comment on ‘Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans’. Science 2015;347:835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murphy GE, Leadbetter JR, Jensen GJ. In situ structure of the complete Treponema primitia flagellar motor. Nature 2006;442:1062–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao H, Zhou Z, Dong H, et al. A facile method to align carbon nanotubes on polymeric membrane substrate. Sci Rep 2013;3:3480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood JM. Wiley Gaap 2015. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
Cialdea A, Ricci PE, Lanzara F, editors. Analysis, Partial Differential Equations and Applications: The Vladimir Maz’ya Anniversary Volume. Basel: : Birkhäuser 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang F, Agrawal G, Jin R. Query Planning for Searching Inter-dependent Deep-Web Databases. In: Ludäscher B, Mamoulis N, eds. Scientific and Statistical Database Management: 20th International Conference, SSDBM 2008, Hong Kong, China, July 9-11, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2008. 24–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lupus Science & Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. NASA Jokingly Asked The Internet To Name Trappist-1 Planets And It Did Not Disappoint. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trinooson TE. CFD investigations of a round jet with coil insert in crossflow. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Two Rulings Find Cuts In Pensions Permissible. New York Times. 2011;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLupus Science & Medicine
AbbreviationLupus Sci. Med.
ISSN (online)2053-8790

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