How to format your references using the Longevity & Healthspan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Longevity & Healthspan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Putterman S. A physicist links magnetism, force and fatigue. Nature. 2008;454:257.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wright KP Jr, Czeisler CA. Absence of circadian phase resetting in response to bright light behind the knees. Science. 2002;297:571.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Foote AD, Osborne RW, Hoelzel AR. Environment: whale-call response to masking boat noise. Nature. 2004;428:910.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fujisawa T, Austing DG, Tokura Y, Hirayama Y, Tarucha S. Allowed and forbidden transitions in artificial hydrogen and helium atoms. Nature. 2002;419:278–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Iyengar SS, Parameshwaran N, Phoha VV, Balakrishnan N, Okoye CD. Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Kent JA, editor. Kent and Riegel’s Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. Eleventh Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Baeza-Yates R, Brisaboa N, Larriba-Pey J. A Model for Automatic Generation of Multi-partite Graphs from Arbitrary Data. In: Shen HT, Pei J, Özsu MT, Zou L, Lu J, Ling T-W, et al., editors. Web-Age Information Management: WAIM 2010 International Workshops: IWGD 2010, XMLDM 2010, WCMT 2010, Jiuzhaigou Valley, China, July 15-17, 2010 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Longevity & Healthspan.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Super-Earths Have Continents Too. IFLScience. 2014. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Management and Oversight of Projects Totaling Billions of Dollars Need Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wilkins D. The Value of the Semantic Differential to the Art Educator. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Removes Official. New York Times. 2002;:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLongevity & Healthspan
ISSN (print)2046-2395

Other styles