How to format your references using the Longevity & Healthspan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Longevity & Healthspan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bynum W. Nobel success: What makes a great lab? Nature. 2012;490:31–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Archer D, Martin P. Ocean circulation. Thin walls tell the tale. Science. 2001;294:2108–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sidhu ABS, Verdier-Pinard D, Fidock DA. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites conferred by pfcrt mutations. Science. 2002;298:210–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tamura Y, Hattori M, Yoshioka H, Yoshioka M, Takahashi A, Wu J, et al. Map-based cloning and characterization of a brown planthopper resistance gene BPH26 from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cultivar ADR52. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. MacClancy J. Anthropology in the Public Arena. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Wang F-H. Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hooper CJ, Neves B, Bordea G. A Disciplinary Analysis of Internet Science. In: Tiropanis T, Vakali A, Sartori L, Burnap P, editors. Internet Science: Second International Conference, INSCI 2015, Brussels, Belgium, May 27-29, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Longevity & Healthspan.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Ancient Cave Art Records Fascinating Evolution Of European Bison. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-cave-art-records-fascinating-evolution-of-european-bison/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Supercomputers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wasserman MM. Psychological Symptoms, Family Functioning, and Religious Coping in Second- and Third-Generation Holocaust Survivors. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. A Pink Slip-Up For Garbage Pickup. New York Times. 2006;:14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLongevity & Healthspan
ISSN (print)2046-2395
Scope

Other styles