How to format your references using the Longevity & Healthspan citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Longevity & Healthspan. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Yarborough M. Openness in science is key to keeping public trust. Nature. 2014;515:313.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Knorr G, Lohmann G. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation. Nature. 2003;424:532–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li C-YT, Poo M-M, Dan Y. Burst spiking of a single cortical neuron modifies global brain state. Science. 2009;324:643–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xu Z, Ao Z, Chu D, Younis A, Li CM, Li S. Reversible hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition in graphene via water splitting induced by UV irradiation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Martinelli RJ, Waddell JM, Rahschulte TJ. Program Management for Improved Business Results. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Ahmad VU, Basha A, editors. Spectroscopic Data of Steroid Glycosides: Cholestanes, Ergostanes, Withanolides, Stigmastane: Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hertel D, Leuschner C, Harteveld M, Wiens M. Fine root mass, distribution and regeneration in disturbed primary forests and secondary forests of the moist tropics. In: Tscharntke T, Leuschner C, Zeller M, Guhardja E, Bidin A, editors. Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 87–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Longevity & Healthspan.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Solar Cells Just A Few Atoms Thick Could Be Possible With New Material. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/solar-cells-just-few-atoms-thick-could-be-possible-new-material/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Budget: Analysis of HCFA’s Fiscal Year 1991 ADP Budget Request. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Havill NL. Therapeutic landscapes for birth: A research synthesis. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. At the Stadium, a Parade of Respect. New York Times. 2011;:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLongevity & Healthspan
ISSN (print)2046-2395
Scope

Other styles