How to format your references using the Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J. (2009). The Gonzo Scientist. The Science Dance Match-Up Challenge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 332.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuthbertson, J. D., & MacMillan, D. W. C. (2015). The direct arylation of allylic sp(3) C-H bonds via organic and photoredox catalysis. Nature, 519(7541), 74–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley, P., Misura, K. M. S., & Baker, D. (2005). Toward high-resolution de novo structure prediction for small proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5742), 1868–1871.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stevens, J., Blixt, O., Tumpey, T. M., Taubenberger, J. K., Paulson, J. C., & Wilson, I. A. (2006). Structure and receptor specificity of the hemagglutinin from an H5N1 influenza virus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5772), 404–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A. C. M., & Hui, S. C. (2006). Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kim, R. (2015). Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching. (L. R. Albert, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, J. R., Park, J., & Sano, Y. (2013). Edge-disjoint Decompositions of Complete Multipartite Graphs into Gregarious Long Cycles. In J. Akiyama, M. Kano, & T. Sakai (Eds.), Computational Geometry and Graphs: Thailand-Japan Joint Conference, TJJCCGG 2012, Bangkok, Thailand, December 6-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 57–63). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 6). Researchers Observe Exact Moment When A Mind Is Changed. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). The F-14/PHOENIX Aircraft Program (No. 093802). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellis, G. S. (2012). Compound-Specific Stable Isotopic Analysis of Protein Amino Acids: Ecological Applications in Modern and Ancient Systems (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, March 20). Court Details Opposition To Bias in Jury Selection. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon, 2009; Cuthbertson & MacMillan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cuthbertson & MacMillan, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Bradley, Misura, & Baker, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stevens et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLoisir et Société / Society and Leisure
ISSN (print)0705-3436
ISSN (online)1705-0154
ScopeMetals and Alloys
Sociology and Political Science

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