How to format your references using the Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. (2004). Drug target identification: a question of biology. Nature, 428(6979), 225–231.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGurk, L., & Bonini, N. M. (2011). Cell biology. Yeast informs Alzheimer’s disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1212–1213.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thürmer, K., Hwang, R. Q., & Bartelt, N. C. (2006). Surface self-organization caused by dislocation networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1272–1274.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, X., Xu, F., Zhu, C., Ji, J., Zhou, X., Feng, X., & Guang, S. (2014). Dual sgRNA-directed gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 technology in Caenorhabditis elegans. Scientific Reports, 4, 7581.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tran, J. (2010). The Vietnam War and Theologies of Memory. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Noah, S. A., Abdullah, A., Arshad, H., Abu Bakar, A., Othman, Z. A., Sahran, S., Omar, N., & Othman, Z. (Eds.). (2013). Soft Computing Applications and Intelligent Systems: Second International Multi-Conference on Artificial Intelligence Technology, M-CAIT 2013, Shah Alam, August 28-29, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 378). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Z., Zou, B., Zhu, Q., & Li, P. (2013). Chinese Negation and Speculation Detection with Conditional Random Fields. In G. Zhou, J. Li, D. Zhao, & Y. Feng (Eds.), Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings (pp. 30–40). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 17). All Six Of The US Nobel Prize Winning Scientists Are Immigrants. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Mass Transit: Grants Management Oversight Improving, but Better Follow-up Needed on Grantees’ Noncompliance (RCED-98-89). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, J. R. (2017). A Risk Analysis of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain Using Bayesian Networks [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., & Herszenhorn, D. M. (2012, August 9). Punk Band’s Moscow Trial Offers Platform for Orthodox Protesters. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (McGurk & Bonini, 2011; Smith, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGurk & Bonini, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Thürmer et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLoisir et Société / Society and Leisure
ISSN (print)0705-3436
ISSN (online)1705-0154
ScopeMetals and Alloys
Sociology and Political Science

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