How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2002. A new global effort to control malaria. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298: 122–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moerchen, Margaret, and Robert Coontz. 2015. General relativity. Einstein’s vision. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 1082–1083.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin, Benjamin M., Joachim Schott, and Bernhard Schink. 2007. Nitrite, an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 1870.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mondal, Sayan, Jennifer M. Johnston, Hao Wang, George Khelashvili, Marta Filizola, and Harel Weinstein. 2013. Membrane driven spatial organization of GPCRs. Scientific reports 3: 2909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves, Ric, and Brice Dunwoodie. 2011. Drupal® 7 Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Kunkel, Julian Martin, Thomas Ludwig, and Hans Werner Meuer, ed. 2013. Supercomputing: 28th International Supercomputing Conference, ISC 2013, Leipzig, Germany, June 16-20, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7905. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrica, Dorin, Dana Mangra, and Cornel Pintea. 2014. Aspects of Global Analysis of Circle-Valued Mappings. In Topics in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, ed. Themistocles M. Rassias and László Tóth, 79–109. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. Hydrogen Could Become The New Fuel For Cooking – Here’s How. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 29.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Airport Noise Grants: FAA Needs to Better Ensure Project Eligibility and Improve Strategic Goal and Performance Measures. GAO-12-890. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dalbey, Spencer B. 2017. Celebrity Endorsements and Voting Intentions: The Role of Liking and Preference for Consistency. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2016. The Art Speaks, and the Poetry Paints a Picture. New York Times, March 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachs 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sachs 2002; Moerchen and Coontz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moerchen and Coontz 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mondal et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

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