How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Gennes, P. G. 2001. Ultradivided matter. Nature 412: 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaproth, Bryan M., and C. Marone. 2013. Slow earthquakes, preseismic velocity changes, and the origin of slow frictional stick-slip. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341: 1229–1232.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thommes, Edward W., Soko Matsumura, and Frederic A. Rasio. 2008. Gas disks to gas giants: simulating the birth of planetary systems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 814–817.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gao, Zhaoshun, Kazumasa Togano, Akiyoshi Matsumoto, and Hiroaki Kumakura. 2014. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba₁-xKxFe₂As₂/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation. Scientific reports 4: 4065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gao, Jianjun. 2010. Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Design and Device Modeling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ellerton, Nerida. 2012. Rewriting the History of School Mathematics in North America 1607-1861: The Central Role of Cyphering Books. Edited by M. A. (ken) Clements. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Reinhart, G., and J. Egbers. 2012. Integrating Ability Limitations into Assembly System Design. In Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011), Montreal, Canada, 2-5 October 2011, ed. Hoda A. ElMaraghy, 35–40. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Men May Have Learned To Navigate In Order To Find More Mates. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Performance and Accountability Highlights Fiscal Year 2006. GAO-07-3SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre, Ramien R. 2019. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. Two Astros-Mets Games Offer Succor to Houston. New York Times, September 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Gennes 2001).
This sentence cites two references (de Gennes 2001; Kaproth and Marone 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaproth and Marone 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

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