How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clutton-Brock, Tim. 2002. Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 69–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eisenstein, J. P., and A. H. Macdonald. 2004. Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems. Nature 432: 691–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stuphorn, V., T. L. Taylor, and J. D. Schall. 2000. Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature 408: 857–860.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wasser, Samuel, Joyce Poole, Phyllis Lee, Keith Lindsay, Andrew Dobson, John Hart, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, et al. 2010. Conservation. Elephants, ivory, and trade. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 1331–1332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attokaran, Mathew. 2011. Natural Food Flavors and Colorants. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Djokić, Stojan, ed. 2016. Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Electrochemistry. Vol. 60. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Sang-Hun, and Hong-Geun Jung. 2016. Ankle and Subtalar Ligaments: Acute Injuries and Chronic Instabilities. In Foot and Ankle Disorders: An Illustrated Reference, ed. Hong-Geun Jung, 147–183. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. Here’s Which Drugs And Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are Most Common In Europe. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 4. 122634. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, Mayra. 2015. Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Move For Life Terms For Terrorists. New York Times, February 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clutton-Brock 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Clutton-Brock 2002; Eisenstein and Macdonald 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eisenstein and Macdonald 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wasser et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

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