How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNutt, Marcia. 2014. A new look. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344: 781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik, P., and A. Abbott. 2000. Project offers free mouse sequence. Nature 407: 663–664.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajagopalan, Jagannathan, Jong H. Han, and M. Taher A. Saif. 2007. Plastic deformation recovery in freestanding nanocrystalline aluminum and gold thin films. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 1831–1834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Han, Jin, Yaochen Zheng, Bo Zhao, Sipei Li, Yuanchao Zhang, and Chao Gao. 2014. Sequentially hetero-functional, topological polymers by step-growth thiol-yne approach. Scientific reports 4: 4387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Federer, Walter T., and Freedom King. 2007. Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hanson, William S., and Ioana A. Oltean, ed. 2013. Archaeology from Historical Aerial and Satellite Archives. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Calin, Ovidiu, Der-Chen Chang, and Jingzhi Tie. 2005. Hermite Operator on the Heisenberg Group. In Harmonic Analysis, Signal Processing, and Complexity: Festschrift in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Carlos A. Berenstein, ed. Irene Sabadini, Daniele C. Struppa, and David F. Walnut, 37–54. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. Volcanoes Will One Day Be Born In New England. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 19.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Strategic Bombers: Updated Status of the B-1B Recovery Program. NSIAD-91-189. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lawary, Yvette. 2014. A Comparison of How Three Four-Year University Teacher Education Programs Prepare Pre-Service Teachers to Use Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2002. Colleges Like Sarah Lawrence Are Putting Poets in Motion. New York Times, November 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNutt 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik and Abbott 2000; McNutt 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smaglik and Abbott 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

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