How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laundré, John W. 2014. Ecology. How large predators manage the cost of hunting. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346: 33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kerrick, D. M., and J. A. Connolly. 2001. Metamorphic devolatilization of subducted marine sediments and the transport of volatiles into the Earth’s mantle. Nature 411: 293–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
Asphaug, Erik, Craig B. Agnor, and Quentin Williams. 2006. Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature 439: 155–160.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Araújo, Ricardo, Rui Castanhinha, Rui M. S. Martins, Octávio Mateus, Christophe Hendrickx, F. Beckmann, N. Schell, and L. C. Alves. 2013. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific reports 3: 1924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blevins, Robert D. 2015. Formulas for Dynamics, Acoustics and Vibration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wanninger, Andreas, ed. 2015. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 5: Ecdysozoa III: Hexapoda. 1st ed. 2015. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Renner, Renato. 2011. Quantum-Resilient Randomness Extraction. In Information Theoretic Security: 5th International Conference, ICITS 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May 21-24, 2011. Proceedings, ed. Serge Fehr, 52–57. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Mutation Stops Worms From Getting Drunk. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 16.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Public Transportation: New Starts Program Challenges and Preliminary Observations on Expediting Project Development. GAO-09-763T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roache, Roberta Savone. 2015. Missouri Public School Teachers’ Perception of Tenure. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David. 2001. Mudville Can Never Die. New York Times, April 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laundré 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kerrick and Connolly 2001; Laundré 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kerrick and Connolly 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Araújo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

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