How to format your references using the Lingua Sinica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lingua Sinica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walter, M. J. 2000. Earth science. A shear pathway to the core. Nature 403: 839–840.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherman, Gavin, and P. Kirk Visscher. 2002. Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing. Nature 419: 920–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard, Christine L., Farnis Boneka, and Robert J. Full. 2005. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1927.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brake, Jeffrey M., Maren K. Daschner, Yan-Yeung Luk, and Nicholas L. Abbott. 2003. Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302: 2094–2097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, Skip Dine. 2012. Psychology at the Movies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gutwirth, Serge, Ronald Leenes, and Paul de Hert, ed. 2015. Reforming European Data Protection Law. Vol. 20. Law, Governance and Technology Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Maes, Jürgen, Christian Tarnai, and Julia Schuster. 2012. About Is and Ought in Research on Belief in a Just World: The Janus-Faced Just-World Motivation. In Justice and Conflicts: Theoretical and Empirical Contributions, ed. Elisabeth Kals and Jürgen Maes, 93–106. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lingua Sinica.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Watch The SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket Launch Live. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Social Security Administration: Update on Year 2000 and Other Key Information Technology Initiatives. T-AIMD-99-259. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson, Ramar. 2010. The effect of Interactive Metronome training on sports confidence and putting performance. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. Watching Neo-Nazis in Virginia, From Germany. New York Times, August 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Walter 2000; Sherman and Visscher 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherman and Visscher 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Brake et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLingua Sinica
AbbreviationLingua Sin.
ISSN (online)2197-6678

Other styles