How to format your references using the Learning & Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning & Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Georghiou L. 2008. Europe’s research system must change. Nature 452: 935–936.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tinel A, Tschopp J. 2004. The PIDDosome, a protein complex implicated in activation of caspase-2 in response to genotoxic stress. Science 304: 843–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li X, Roberti R, Blobel G. 2015. Structure of an integral membrane sterol reductase from Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum. Nature 517: 104–107.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang Z, Xu N, Chen DTN, Yunker P, Alsayed AM, Aptowicz KB, Habdas P, Liu AJ, Nagel SR, Yodh AG. 2009. Thermal vestige of the zero-temperature jamming transition. Nature 459: 230–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piegorsch WW, Bailer AJ. 2005. Analyzing Environmental Data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Rahmandoust M. 2016. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Composites under Consideration of Defects. ed. M.R. Ayatollahi. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolf E, Beblo M, Ohlert C. 2012. Gender and nationality pay gaps in light of organisational theories. In Managing Diversity in Organizations (eds. B. Beham, C. Straub, and J. Schwalbach), pp. 69–94, Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning & Memory.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. New Tool Increases Battery Life Of Phones By 16%. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Highway Safety: Federal and State Efforts Related to Accidents That Involve Non-Commercial Vehicles Carrying Unsecured Loads. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nolan C. 2017. Safety Mindfulness: The Incorporation of Low-Dose Mindfulness as a Leading Edge Safety Intervention. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2006. 2 Justices Indicate Supreme Court Is Unlikely to Televise Sessions. New York Times, April 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Georghiou 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Georghiou 2008; Tinel and Tschopp 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tinel and Tschopp 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning & Memory
AbbreviationLearn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1072-0502
ISSN (online)1549-5485
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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