How to format your references using the Learning & Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning & Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch X. 2000. Spain’s science figures under fire. Nature 407: 821.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng L, AghaKouchak A. 2014. Nonstationary precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves for infrastructure design in a changing climate. Sci Rep 4: 7093.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suttle KB, Thomsen MA, Power ME. 2007. Species interactions reverse grassland responses to changing climate. Science 315: 640–642.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fu Q, Johanson CM, Warren SG, Seidel DJ. 2004. Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trends. Nature 429: 55–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesley LD. 2010. Geotechnical Engineering in Residual Soils. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Amaris H. 2013. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation. eds. M. Alonso and C. Alvarez Ortega. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Halt GB, Fesnak R, Donch JC, Stiles AR. 2014. Domain Names. In Intellectual Property in Consumer Electronics, Software and Technology Startups (eds. J.C. Donch Jr., A.R. Stiles, and R. Fesnak), pp. 61–66, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning & Memory.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. From Newton To Einstein: The Origins Of General Relativity. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Fiscal Year 2007 Performance Plans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer JA. 2010. Accurate Localization Given Uncertain Sensors. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly R. 1994. “Have One Hard Cry. Then Stanch the Grief.” New York Times, July 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bosch 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bosch 2000; Cheng and AghaKouchak 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and AghaKouchak 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning & Memory
AbbreviationLearn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1072-0502
ISSN (online)1549-5485
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Other styles