How to format your references using the Learning & Memory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning & Memory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fenton N. 2011. Science and law: Improve statistics in court. Nature 479: 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karbaschi M, Cooke MS. 2014. Novel method for the high-throughput processing of slides for the comet assay. Sci Rep 4: 7200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailey S, Eliason WK, Steitz TA. 2007. Structure of hexameric DnaB helicase and its complex with a domain of DnaG primase. Science 318: 459–463.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hernandez LD, Hueffer K, Wenk MR, Galán JE. 2004. Salmonella modulates vesicular traffic by altering phosphoinositide metabolism. Science 304: 1805–1807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2008. Inherently Safer Chemical Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meghanathan N, Chaki N, Nagamalai D, eds. 2012. Advances in Computer Science and Information Technology. Computer Science and Engineering: Second International Conference, CCSIT 2012, Bangalore, India, January 2-4, 2012. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Robinson D. 2016. Benveniste and the Periperformative Structure of the Pragmeme. In Pragmemes and Theories of Language Use (eds. K. Allan, A. Capone, and I. Kecskes), Perspectives in Pragmatics, Philosophy & Psychology, pp. 85–104, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning & Memory.

Blog post
Davis J. 2015. First Malaria Vaccine Trial Results Are In. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Railroad Safety: DOD Can Improve the Safety of On-Base Track and Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gimbel SI. 2010. Imaging frontal and medial temporal lobe interaction during memory retrieval and disentangling the effects of the default network. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2017. With New Injury, the Mets’ Training Program Is Again Questioned. New York Times, June 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fenton 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fenton 2011; Karbaschi and Cooke 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karbaschi and Cooke 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hernandez et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning & Memory
AbbreviationLearn. Mem.
ISSN (print)1072-0502
ISSN (online)1549-5485
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Other styles