How to format your references using the Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2014) Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle. Nature 514:S2-4
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheinin MY, Wang MD (2012) Biochemistry. A DNA twist diffuses and hops. Science 338:56–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Howat IM, Joughin I, Scambos TA (2007) Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers. Science 315:1559–1561
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blinov BB, Moehring DL, Duan L-M, Monroe C (2004) Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon. Nature 428:153–157

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port M, Samuels M (2009) The Think Big Manifesto. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ma S, Wen J-R, Liu Y, et al (2016) Information Retrieval Technology: 12th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2016, Beijing, China, November 30 – December 2, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Aydogan-Duda N (2012) Education, Science and Technology in Developing Countries. In: Aydogan-Duda N (ed) Making It to the Forefront: Nanotechnology—A Developing Country Perspective. Springer, New York, NY, pp 35–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Scientists Are Using “Frankenturtles” To Protect Marine Wildlife In Chesapeake Bay. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Funding Information on the State Student Incentive Grant Program and Other Need-Based Student Aid Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bui L (2017) Mind Over Matter Telepsychiatry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2011) Coast Garde. New York Times M224

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLangenbeck's Archives of Surgery
AbbreviationLangenbecks Arch. Surg.
ISSN (print)1435-2443
ISSN (online)1435-2451

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