How to format your references using the Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lightman A (2005) A tale of two loves. Nature 434:299–300
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouchon M, Karabulut H (2008) The aftershock signature of supershear earthquakes. Science 320:1323–1325
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakuno T, Tada K, Watanabe Y (2009) Kinetochore geometry defined by cohesion within the centromere. Nature 458:852–858
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smolyaninova VN, Yost B, Lahneman D, et al (2014) Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals. Sci Rep 4:5706

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Piegorsch WW, Bailer AJ (2005) Analyzing Environmental Data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chakravorti S (2013) Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers: Theory, Implementation and Analysis. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Nedumaran T, Arulbalachandran D (2015) Seaweeds: A Promising Source for Sustainable Development. In: Thangavel P, Sridevi G (eds) Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 65–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) The Human Heart Begins Beating Just 16 Days After Conception. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Review of Accountable Officers’ Accounts, Minneapolis Postal Data Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verderame N (2013) An educational curriculum for registered dietitians to educate obese patients on the nutrition approach for stress management. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2006) Nunley’s Carousel Comes Full Circle. New York Times 14LI3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLangenbeck's Archives of Surgery
AbbreviationLangenbecks Arch. Surg.
ISSN (print)1435-2443
ISSN (online)1435-2451

Other styles