How to format your references using the Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J (2001) Think like a bee. Nature 410:510–512
A journal article with 2 authors
Bloom K, Joglekar A (2010) Towards building a chromosome segregation machine. Nature 463:446–456
A journal article with 3 authors
Lind PA, Berg OG, Andersson DI (2010) Mutational robustness of ribosomal protein genes. Science 330:825–827
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sale JE, Calandrini DM, Takata M, et al (2001) Ablation of XRCC2/3 transforms immunoglobulin V gene conversion into somatic hypermutation. Nature 412:921–926

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reeve WD (2006) DC Power System Design for Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Doi S (2010) Computational Electrophysiology: Dynamical Systems and Bifurcations. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Carminati R (2006) Introduction to Radiative Transfer. In: Volz S (ed) Microscale and Nanoscale Heat Transfer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Male Spiders Perform Oral Sex On Females. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Integration of Current Implementation Efforts with Long-term Planning for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton KJ (2014) Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) You Don’t Hide Behind These. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLangenbeck's Archives of Surgery
AbbreviationLangenbecks Arch. Surg.
ISSN (print)1435-2443
ISSN (online)1435-2451

Other styles