How to format your references using the Land Degradation & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land Degradation & Development (LDD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kratky C. 2013. A coordinated approach is key for open access. Nature 500: 503
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan GD, Crump MJC. 2010. Cognitive illusions of authorship reveal hierarchical error detection in skilled typists. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 683–686
A journal article with 3 authors
Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA. 2000. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405: 299–304
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Woo K, Kim Y, Yang W, Kim K, Kim I, Oh Y, Kim JY, Moon J. 2013. Band-gap-graded Cu2ZnSn(S1-x,Se(x))4 solar cells fabricated by an ethanol-based, particulate precursor ink route. Scientific reports 3: 3069

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard M. 2009. SolidWorks® Administration Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Biehl H, Giegerich B, Jonas A (eds). 2013. Strategic Cultures in Europe: Security and Defence Policies Across the Continent. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Diop A, Qi Y, Wang Q. 2014. An Efficient and Secure Session Key Management Scheme for Cluster Based Wireless Sensors Networks. In: Zu Q, Vargas-Vera M and Hu B (eds) Pervasive Computing and the Networked World: Joint International Conference, ICPCA/SWS 2013, Vina del Mar, Chile, December 5-7, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 33–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land Degradation & Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2015. New Horizons Suffers Glitch Just Ten Days Before its Arrival at Pluto. IFLScience. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Stafford Student Loans: Prompt Payment of Origination Fees Could Reduce Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinh H. 2013. A study of cell-based genetic algorithms with applications to neural networks. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2000. Woodstock on the Volga: Protest Ages Into Singalong. New York Times, 5 September, page E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kratky, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kratky, 2013; Logan & Crump, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan & Crump, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Woo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLand Degradation & Development
AbbreviationLand Degrad. Dev.
ISSN (print)1085-3278
ISSN (online)1099-145X
ScopeSoil Science
General Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry

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