How to format your references using the Land Degradation & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land Degradation & Development (LDD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith SM. 2000. Acceptable evidence. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 2050–2051
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R. 2010. Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system. Science (New York, N.Y.) 327: 291–295
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamada Y, Kawabe T, Miyazaki M. 2013. Pattern randomness aftereffect. Scientific reports 3: 2906
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shriner D, Tekola-Ayele F, Adeyemo A, Rotimi CN. 2014. Genome-wide genotype and sequence-based reconstruction of the 140,000 year history of modern human ancestry. Scientific reports 4: 6055

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Giannini F, Leuzzi G. 2005. Nonlinear Microwave Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK
An edited book
Grosjean H (ed). 2005. Fine-Tuning of RNA Functions by Modification and Editing. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Brake L, Turner MW. 2016. Rebranding the News of the World: 1891 and After. In: Brake L, Kaul C and Turner MW (eds) The News of the World and the British Press, 1843–2011: Journalism for the Rich, Journalism for the Poor. Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 43–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land Degradation & Development.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. How A Nasty, Brain-Eating Parasite Could Help Us Fight Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. [Comments on FAA Reimbursement of Employees’ Ferry Fares]. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu C. 2013. Regulatory functions of the actin cytoskeleton in B cell receptor signaling. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bittman M. 2012. Feast in a Day. New York Times, 14 December, page MM38

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Iwasaki & Medzhitov, 2010; Smith, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwasaki & Medzhitov, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Shriner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLand Degradation & Development
AbbreviationLand Degrad. Dev.
ISSN (print)1085-3278
ISSN (online)1099-145X
ScopeSoil Science
General Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry

Other styles