How to format your references using the Läkartidningen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Läkartidningen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe M. Small world, big hopes. Nature. 2003 Nov 27;426(6965):478–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kolodrubetz MH, Petta JR. Applied physics. Coherent holes in a semiconductor quantum dot. Science. 2009 Jul 3;325(5936):42–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley WT Jr, Phillips D, Gayer T. The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science. 2008 Jun 27;320(5884):1723–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Walker PR, Worobey M, Rambaut A, Holmes EC, Pybus OG. Epidemiology: Sexual transmission of HIV in Africa. Nature. 2003 Apr 17;422(6933):679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang L, Tan KC. Modern Industrial Automation Software Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Dillmann P, Bellot-Gurlet L, Nenner I, editors. Nanoscience and Cultural Heritage. Paris: Atlantis Press; 2016. XVI, 311 p. 128 illus., 85 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Bottin F, Longo M. The History of Philosophy from Eclecticism to Pietism. In: Santinello G, Piaia G, editors. Models of the History of Philosophy: Volume II: From Cartesian Age to Brucker. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 301–85. (International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Läkartidningen.

Blog post
Andrew E. Live Webcast of Expeditions 41/42 Crew to ISS [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: Better Control Over States’ Medicaid Systems Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-89-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lavoie D. Ecotone [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. After a 32-Year Journey, Justice Stevens Renounces Capital Punishment. New York Times. 2008 Apr 18;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLäkartidningen
ISSN (print)0023-7205
ISSN (online)1652-7518

Other styles