How to format your references using the Läkartidningen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Läkartidningen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toms DJ. Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics. Nature. 2010 Nov 4;468(7320):56–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caliskan S, Laref A. Spin transport properties of n-polyacene molecules (n = 1-15) connected to Ni surface electrodes: theoretical analysis. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 8;4:7363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merkle FT, Mirzadeh Z, Alvarez-Buylla A. Mosaic organization of neural stem cells in the adult brain. Science. 2007 Jul 20;317(5836):381–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Soares-Filho BS, Nepstad DC, Curran LM, Cerqueira GC, Garcia RA, Ramos CA, et al. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):520–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang Y, Wen F, Xiao M. Quantum Control of Multi-Wave Mixing. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Goh J, Lim CT, editors. 7th WACBE World Congress on Bioengineering 2015: 6th to 8th July, 2015, Singapore. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XX, 218 p. 241 illus. (IFMBE Proceedings; vol. 52).
A chapter in an edited book
Kubczak C, Margaria T, Steffen B, Nagel R. Service-oriented Mediation with jABC/jETI. In: Petrie C, Margaria T, Lausen H, Zaremba M, editors. Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 71–99. (Semantic Web And Beyond).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Läkartidningen.

Blog post
Hamilton K. How An Army Of “Super Recognizers” Could Help Spot Criminals And Missing Persons [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementing a Data Handling Policy for Space Science Flight Investigations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 May. Report No.: MASAD-81-34.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua P. Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McAULEY J. The Artists and Their Alley. New York Times. 2016 Sep 22;M2178.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLäkartidningen
ISSN (print)0023-7205
ISSN (online)1652-7518

Other styles