How to format your references using the Läkartidningen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Läkartidningen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander RM. Design by numbers. Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ketting RF, Plasterk RH. A genetic link between co-suppression and RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):296–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blumenstock J, Cadamuro G, On R. Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1073–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Day JJ, Norman DB, Upchurch P, Powell HP. Dinosaur locomotion from a new trackway. Nature. 2002 Jan 31;415(6871):494–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolson RF, Clarke WR. Statistical Methods for the Analysis of Biomedical Data: Woolson/Statistical. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Forbrig P, Paternò F, editors. Engineering Interactive Systems: Second Conference on Human-Centered Software Engineering, HCSE 2008, and 7th International Workshop on Task Models and Diagrams, TAMODIA 2008, Pisa, Italy, September 25-26, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XI, 306 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5247).
A chapter in an edited book
Ainley J, Enger L, Searle D. Students in a Digital Age: Implications of ICT for Teaching and Learning. In: Voogt J, Knezek G, editors. International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Läkartidningen.

Blog post
Andrew D. You Could Fit The Entire Human Race Into A Sugar Cube — And 13 Other Facts To Put The Universe Into Perspective [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Follow-Up National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jun. Report No.: RCED-90-199.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abedin G. Exploring the potential of art-based education for adolescents with learning disabilities: A case study of engagement in learning through the arts [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pfaff J. The Justices Need Fact-Checkers. New York Times. 2017 Oct 18;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLäkartidningen
ISSN (print)0023-7205
ISSN (online)1652-7518

Other styles