How to format your references using the L'Encéphale citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for L'Encéphale. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cortada X. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Painting the genome for the public. Science 2011;331:548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Granick S, Bae SC. Chemistry. A curious antipathy for water. Science 2008;322:1477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kanai T, Minemoto S, Sakai H. Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules. Nature 2005;435:470–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kumar KA, Sano G-I, Boscardin S, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig MC, Zavala F, et al. The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites. Nature 2006;444:937–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Archer RD. Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Wißmann P. Electrical Resistivity of Thin Metal Films. vol. 223. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh AK. Extrusion of Multicomponent Product. In: Kim JK, Thomas S, Saha P, editors. Multicomponent Polymeric Materials, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016, p. 109–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for L'Encéphale.

Blog post
Andrew E. You Could Be Flying In A Windowless Plane Within A Decade. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. K-12 Education: Education’s Experiences with Flexibility Waivers Could Inform Efforts to Assist States with New Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sink RC. Exploring a high school community relations and parent involvement program. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Musburger Criticized for Remarks About Star’s Girlfriend During Title Game. New York Times 2013:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleL'Encéphale
ISSN (print)0013-7006
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles