How to format your references using the L'Encéphale citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for L'Encéphale. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Kostelecký VA. Precision measurement: Relativity tested with a split electron. Nature 2015;517:559–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kellner AWA, Campos D de A. The function of the cranial crest and jaws of a unique pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. Science 2002;297:389–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Orlitsky A, Santhanam NP, Zhang J. Always Good Turing: asymptotically optimal probability estimation. Science 2003;302:427–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Suematsu S, Harano K-I, Tanaka S, Kawaura K, Ogihara Y, Watari Y, et al. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs. Sci Rep 2013;3:2577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Pande A, Wolshon B. Traffic Engineering Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Goldstein S, Naglieri JA, editors. Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Walna B, Kurzyca I, Siepak J. Variations in the Fluoride Level in Precipitation in a Region of Human Impact. In: Brimblecombe P, Hara H, Houle D, Novak M, editors. Acid Rain - Deposition to Recovery, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for L'Encéphale.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Scientists Have Found The Best Way To Treat A Jellyfish Sting, And No, It’s Not Pee. IFLScience 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Is Taking Steps to Validate the Science Underlying Its Passenger Behavior Detection Program, but Efforts May Not Be Comprehensive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Gornto JS. The impact of student leadership in classroom management on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Oral Dissents Give Ginsburg A New Voice. New York Times 2007:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleL'Encéphale
AbbreviationEncephale
ISSN (print)0013-7006
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health

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