How to format your references using the L'aide-soignante citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for L'aide-soignante. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engheta N. OPTICS. 150 years of Maxwell’s equations. Science 2015;349:136–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Höfling S, Kavokin A. Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned. Nature 2014;514:313–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnarez C, Marrink SJ, Periole X. Identification of cardiolipin binding sites on cytochrome c oxidase at the entrance of proton channels. Sci Rep 2013;3:1263.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prainsack B, Reardon J, Hindmarsh R, Gottweis H, Naue U, Lunshof JE. Personal genomes: Misdirected precaution. Nature 2008;456:34–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benmammar B, Amraoui A. Radio Resource Allocation and Dynamic Spectrum Access. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Mangioni G, Simini F, Uzzo SM, Wang D, editors. Complex Networks VI: Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Complex Networks CompleNet 2015. vol. 597. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wright S, Erkes C. User Training and Adoption. In: Erkes C, editor. Pro SharePoint 2010 Governance, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012, p. 55–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for L'aide-soignante.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Make A Mini Rocketship With A Match And Some Tinfoil. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis JA. Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Church Hints It May Serve As Mediator In Russia. New York Times 2012:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleL'aide-soignante
ISSN (print)1166-3413
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles