How to format your references using the L'aide-soignante citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for L'aide-soignante. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohashi PS. Immunology. Exposing thy self. Science 2002;298:1348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor RM, Kenny PJ. Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems. Nature 2015;520:168–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li X, Yang Y, Ashwell JD. TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2. Nature 2002;416:345–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mao G, Perea RF, Howells WS, Price DL, Saboungi ML. Relaxation in polymer electrolytes on the nanosecond timescale. Nature 2000;405:163–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandya R. Mobile and Personal Communication Services and Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Diaz J, Lanese I, Sangiorgi D, editors. Theoretical Computer Science: 8th IFIP TC 1/WG 2.2 International Conference, TCS 2014, Rome, Italy, September 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. vol. 8705. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Horesh D, Solomon Z, Keinan G, Ein-Dor T. Delayed-Onset PTSD in Israeli Combat Veterans: Correlates, Clinical Picture, and Controversy. In: Safir MP, Wallach HS, Rizzo A “skip,” editors. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015, p. 97–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for L'aide-soignante.

Blog post
Andrew E. Five Things I Learned When My Research Went Viral. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Interim Report on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson AC. A Geophysical and Geological Characterization of the Bonanza 3D Survey, Claiborne Group, Saint Landry and Evangeline Parishes, Louisiana. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler E, Fink S, Yee V. A Preventable Descent Into Suffocating Chaos. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleL'aide-soignante
ISSN (print)1166-3413
ScopeGeneral Nursing

Other styles