How to format your references using the Läkartidningen citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Läkartidningen. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aiken C. HIV: Antiviral action countered by Nef. Nature. 2015 Oct 8;526(7572):202–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Federman SR, Young ED. Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science. 2009 Jun 19;324(5934):1516; author reply 1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover KD, Bushnell DA, Kornberg RD. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Science. 2004 Feb 13;303(5660):1014–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lam H, Oh DC, Cava F, Takacs CN, Clardy J, de Pedro MA, et al. D-amino acids govern stationary phase cell wall remodeling in bacteria. Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1552–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemma A. Introduction to the Practice of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Bokulich A, Bokulich P, editors. Scientific Structuralism. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. XVII, 182 p. (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science; vol. 281).
A chapter in an edited book
Fagin A. Attending to Infant Mental Health. In: Smith L, editor. Clinical Practice at the Edge of Care: Developments in Working with At-Risk Children and their Families. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Läkartidningen.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Debunking One Of The Biggest Stereotypes About Women In The Gaming Community. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Needed Improvements in FAA’s Airline Inspection Program Are Underway. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: RCED-87-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cope JA. Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker K, Shah PZ, Goldstein J, Silver-Greenberg J. From Class Clown to Manhattan Bomb Suspect. New York Times. 2016 Sep 24;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLäkartidningen
ISSN (print)0023-7205
ISSN (online)1652-7518

Other styles