How to format your references using the KI - Künstliche Intelligenz citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for KI - Künstliche Intelligenz. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan C (2002) Points of control in inflammation. Nature 420:846–852
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamsen H, Stenmark H (2011) Cell biology. Growth signaling from inside. Science 334:611–612
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakurai H, Daiko T, Hirao T (2003) A synthesis of sumanene, a fullerene fragment. Science 301:1878
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Takahashi H, Igawa K, Arii K, et al (2008) Superconductivity at 43 K in an iron-based layered compound LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs. Nature 453:376–378

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D (2007) TKO Sales! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Agarwal A, Aitken RJ, Alvarez JG (2012) Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
McTear M, Callejas Z, Griol D (2016) Speech Input and Output. In: Callejas Z, Griol D (eds) The Conversational Interface: Talking to Smart Devices. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for KI - Künstliche Intelligenz.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) NASA’s Next Mission Will Study The Extreme Environment Around Black Holes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Telecommunications: Greater Involvement Needed by FCC in the Management and Oversight of the E-Rate Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin H-C (2013) Depression screening in ambulatory care. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2000) From Nothing, A Great Team Rises; Duluth Women’s Hockey Program Surges to Prominence in Its First Year. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKI - Künstliche Intelligenz
ISSN (print)0933-1875
ISSN (online)1610-1987

Other styles