How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Education & Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Education & Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dixit, Vishva. 2011. “Jürg Tschopp (1951-2011).” Nature 472 (7343): 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Austin, Amy T., and Lucía Vivanco. 2006. “Plant Litter Decomposition in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem Controlled by Photodegradation.” Nature 442 (7102): 555–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bino, Avi, Michael Ardon, and Elijah Shirman. 2005. “Formation of a Carbon-Carbon Triple Bond by Coupling Reactions in Aqueous Solution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5719): 234–235.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Perkins, Thomas T., Ravindra V. Dalal, Paul G. Mitsis, and Steven M. Block. 2003. “Sequence-Dependent Pausing of Single Lambda Exonuclease Molecules.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5641): 1914–1918.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, Rolf G. 2004. Color. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sack, Harald, Eva Blomqvist, Mathieu d’Aquin, Chiara Ghidini, Simone Paolo Ponzetto, and Christoph Lange, eds. 2016. The Semantic Web. Latest Advances and New Domains: 13th International Conference, ESWC 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 29 -- June 2, 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 9678. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Baisero, Andrea, Florian T. Pokorny, Danica Kragic, and Carl Henrik Ek. 2015. “The Path Kernel: A Novel Kernel for Sequential Data.” In Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods: International Conference, ICPRAM 2013 Barcelona, Spain, February 15-18, 2013 Revised Selected Papers, edited by Ana Fred and Maria De Marsico, 71–84. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Education & Training.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “Will Samsung Reveal The First Foldable Smartphone In 2016?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Federal Communications Commission’s Effort To Implement the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. 089644. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dinneny, Paige N. 2017. “End of August.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rail Link To Georgian Region Is Shut.” New York Times, December 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dixit 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dixit 2011; Austin and Vivanco 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Austin and Vivanco 2006)
  • Three authors: (Bino, Ardon, and Shirman 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Perkins et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Education & Training
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (print)1363-6820
ISSN (online)1747-5090

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