How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Education & Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Education & Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael. 2012. “Public Health: Prevention Comes of Age.” Nature 488 (7413): S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crandall, Keith A., and Jennifer E. Buhay. 2004. “Evolution. Genomic Databases and the Tree of Life.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5699): 1144–1145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson, Paul N., Gavin L. Foster, and Bridget S. Wade. 2009. “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition.” Nature 461 (7267): 1110–1113.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Colaprete, Anthony, Peter Schultz, Jennifer Heldmann, Diane Wooden, Mark Shirley, Kimberly Ennico, Brendan Hermalyn, et al. 2010. “Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6003): 463–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, Ken. 2015. Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vaudenay, Serge, ed. 2006. Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2006: 24th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 28 - June 1, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 4004. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cullinane, Kevin, Sharon Cullinane, and Tengfei Wang. 2016. “A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Container Ports in China and the Implications for Their Development.” In Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 1: Applying Theory to Practice in Maritime Logistics, edited by Paul Tae-Woo Lee and Kevin Cullinane, 79–101. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Education & Training.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Habitable Planets Probably Nearby.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Managing Competing Pressures Is Critical to Achieving Program Goals. GAO-03-1012T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sumi, Selina Jahan. 2015. “Eco-Hydrology Driven Evaluation of Statistically Downscaled Precipitation CMIP5 Climate Model Simulations over Louisiana.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2017. “Federer, Continuing His Rebound, Soars Into Semifinals as Favorite.” New York Times, July 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2012; Crandall and Buhay 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Crandall and Buhay 2004)
  • Three authors: (Pearson, Foster, and Wade 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Colaprete et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Education & Training
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (print)1363-6820
ISSN (online)1747-5090

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