How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Education & Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Education & Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bargmann, Cornelia I. 2006. “Comparative Chemosensation from Receptors to Ecology.” Nature 444 (7117): 295–301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, Mark I., and R. John Wilson. 2002. “A Topographically Forced Asymmetry in the Martian Circulation and Climate.” Nature 416 (6878): 298–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas, Jonathan, Winifred Creamer, and Alvaro Ruiz. 2004. “Dating the Late Archaic Occupation of the Norte Chico Region in Peru.” Nature 432 (7020): 1020–1023.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Du, Jintang, Yeyun Zhou, Xiaoyang Su, Jiu Jiu Yu, Saba Khan, Hong Jiang, Jungwoo Kim, et al. 2011. “Sirt5 Is a NAD-Dependent Protein Lysine Demalonylase and Desuccinylase.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6057): 806–809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holloway, Michael, and Chikezie Nwaoha. 2012. Dictionary of Industrial Terms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gannon, Todd, Margaret Fletcher, and Teresa Ball, eds. 2005. Mack Scogin Merrill Elam: Knowlton Hall. Vol. 6. Source Books in Architecture. New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Salomon, David, and Giovanni Motta. 2010. “Robust VL Codes.” In Handbook of Data Compression, edited by Giovanni Motta, 177–209. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Education & Training.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Quitting Smoking Reverses Dopamine Deficits In The Brain.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. DOD Business Transformation: Air Force’s Current Approach Increases Risk That Asset Visibility Goals and Transformation Priorities Will Not Be Achieved. GAO-08-866. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, Danielle M. 2010. “Cutting a Thorn: The Cleansing Function of Female Genital Cutting.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, Ken. 2014. “Coaxing Fire and Police Staffs in Arizona to Cut Own Pensions.” New York Times, August 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garsin 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell 2003; Csatho 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Wilson 2002)
  • Three authors: (Haas, Creamer, and Ruiz 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kaiser et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Education & Training
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (print)1363-6820
ISSN (online)1747-5090

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