How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Education & Training citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Education & Training. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stairs, Ingrid H. 2004. “Pulsars in Binary Systems: Probing Binary Stellar Evolution and General Relativity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5670): 547–552.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taleff, Eric M., and Nicholas A. Pedrazas. 2013. “Materials Science. A New Route for Growing Large Grains in Metals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6153): 1461–1462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Yi Ge, Mark Pagani, and Zhonghui Liu. 2014. “A 12-Million-Year Temperature History of the Tropical Pacific Ocean.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6179): 84–87.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, Q., G. Li, D. Rhodes, A. Kiswandhi, T. Besara, B. Zeng, J. Sun, T. Siegrist, M. D. Johannes, and L. Balicas. 2013. “Superconductivity with Extremely Large Upper Critical Fields in Nb2Pd0.81S5.” Scientific Reports 3: 1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Concrete and Construction Cl. 2011. Beispiele Zur Bemessung Nach Eurocode 2. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Erduran, Sibel. 2014. Reconceptualizing the Nature of Science for Science Education: Scientific Knowledge, Practices and Other Family Categories. Edited by Zoubeida R. Dagher. Vol. 43. Contemporary Trends and Issues in Science Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Anthony, Stein And, and Forman J. Stephen. 2008. “Allogeneic and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Adult.” In Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, edited by Robert J. Soiffer, 57–82. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Education & Training.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Everything You Need To Know About Tor And The Deep Web.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s System of Accounting for Accounts Receivable. FGMSD-77-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeSpain, Lynn. 2008. “The Relationship between Police Supervisor Training and Job Satisfaction Levels as Reported by Patrol Officers.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, Susan. 2016. “Way Down Under.” New York Times, October 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stairs 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Stairs 2004; Taleff and Pedrazas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taleff and Pedrazas 2013)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Pagani, and Liu 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Education & Training
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Educ. Train.
ISSN (print)1363-6820
ISSN (online)1747-5090

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