How to format your references using the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 G. Brumfiel, Nature 423, 674 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 C. Körner and D. Basler, Science 327, 1461 (2010).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 H.C. Korswagen, M.A. Herman, and H.C. Clevers, Nature 406, 527 (2000).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 G. Obmolova, C. Ban, P. Hsieh, and W. Yang, Nature 407, 703 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 T.P. Ryan, Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement: Ryan/Quality Improvement 3E (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
1 J.L. Butler, Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound, 2nd ed. 2016 (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
1 J. Getz and M. Goresky, in Hilbert Modular Forms with Coefficients in Intersection Homology and Quadratic Base Change, edited by M. Goresky (Springer, Basel, 2012), pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films.

Blog post
1 S. Luntz, IFLScience (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety Hazards (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 A.M. van der Veen, Domestic Politics, International Inaction: The United States and Human Rights Treaties, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 K. Crow, New York Times 144 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films
AbbreviationJ. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
ISSN (print)0734-2101
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles