How to format your references using the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 S. Havlin, Science 324, 1023 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 M.J. Saks and J.J. Koehler, Science 309, 892 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 J.-B. Ma, K. Ye, and D.J. Patel, Nature 429, 318 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 Y.-C. Chang, C.-Y. Yang, R.-L. Sun, Y.-F. Cheng, W.-C. Kao, and P.-C. Yang, Sci. Rep. 3, 1863 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 G. Pruitt, The Ultimate Algorithmic Trading System Toolbox + Website (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016).
An edited book
1 T.M. Maus, S. Nhieu, and S.T. Herway, editors , Essential Echocardiography: Transesophageal Echocardiography for Non-Cardiac Anesthesiologists (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
1 R. Hendel, in Israel’s Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience, edited by T.E. Levy, T. Schneider, and W.H.C. Propp (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015), pp. 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films.

Blog post
1 J. Fang, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Vehicle Data Privacy: Industry and Federal Efforts Under Way but NHTSA Needs to Define Its Role (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 E.T. Hayes, Musical Improvisation and the Creative Process, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 J. Gorman, New York Times D4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films
AbbreviationJ. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
ISSN (print)0734-2101
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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