How to format your references using the Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Whitmire KH. Chemistry. Molecular donuts and donut holes. Science. 2010;327:38–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Abraham RG, van Den Bergh S. The morphological evolution of galaxies. Science. 2001;293:1273–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kokoouline V, Greene CH, Esry BD. Mechanism for the destruction of H+3 ions by electron impact. Nature. 2001;412:891–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Greffet J-J, Carminati R, Joulain K, Mulet J-P, Mainguy S, Chen Y. Coherent emission of light by thermal sources. Nature. 2002;416:61–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Simon J. Banach, Fréchet, Hilbert and Neumann Spaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Tan P-N, Chawla S, Ho CK, Bailey J, editors. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 16th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 29-June 1, 2012, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Trillas F. Fuzzy Logic and Modern Economics. In: Seising R, Trillas E, Kacprzyk J, editors. Towards the Future of Fuzzy Logic. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 55–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Japan Is Going To The Moon! [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: Implications of Ratifying the Montreal Aviation Protocols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jun. Report No.: T-RCED-90-83.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mills CC. Olfaction and Exhibition: Assessing the Impact of Scent in Museums on Exhibit Engagement, Learning and Empathy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. A Life Spent In the Past, Of a Fashion. New York Times. 1998 Aug 2;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
AbbreviationJ. Trauma Manag. Outcomes
ISSN (online)1752-2897

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