How to format your references using the Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Greensfelder L. INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Polio Outbreak Raises Questions About Vaccine. Science. 2000;290:1867b–9b.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Berman F, Cerf V. Science priorities. Who will pay for public access to research data? Science. 2013;341:616–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Szlufarska I, Nakano A, Vashishta P. A crossover in the mechanical response of nanocrystalline ceramics. Science. 2005;309:911–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Luo M, Li Z-Z, Li Y-Y, Chen L-Z, Yan S-P, Chen P, et al. Relationship between red cell distribution width and serum uric acid in patients with untreated essential hypertension. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Waupsh J. Bankruption. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Zavoral F, Yaghob J, Pichappan P, El-Qawasmeh E, editors. Networked Digital Technologies: Second International Conference, NDT 2010, Prague, Czech Republic, July 7-9, 2010. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Johnson MH. Making a Home: Archaeologies of the Medieval English Village. In: Habu J, Fawcett C, Matsunaga JM, editors. Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Davis J. All-Female Hybrid Salamanders Take Genes From Males Of Three Different Species To Breed. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Accreditation: Activities of Seven Agencies That Accredit Proprietary Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: HRD-90-179BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Jensen ME. A comparison of school psychologists’ and school counselors’ ability to identify cognitive abilities underlying basic academic tasks [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Ruling Helps Prosecutors In Death Penalty Cases. New York Times. 2007 Jun 5;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
AbbreviationJ. Trauma Manag. Outcomes
ISSN (online)1752-2897

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