How to format your references using the Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bottjer DJ. Geochemistry. Life in the Early Triassic ocean. Science. 2012;338:336–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gomberg J, Johnson P. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes. Nature. 2005;437:830.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gasparini Z, Pol D, Spalletti LA. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science. 2006;311:70–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vajk OP, Mang PK, Greven M, Gehring PM, Lynn JW. Quantum impurities in the two-dimensional spin one-half Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Science. 2002;295:1691–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jeong H. Architectures for Computer Vision. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Yamamoto S, editor. Human Interface and the Management of Information: Applications and Services: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016 Toronto, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Singh SK. Scenario of Urban Transport in Indian Cities: Challenges and the Way Forward. In: Dev SM, Yedla S, editors. Cities and Sustainability: Issues and Strategic Pathways. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015. p. 81–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 1995 VHS Footage Captures Shocking Orca Incident At SeaWorld. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Information on the Advanced Technology Program’s Award Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Aug. Report No.: RCED-99-258R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ciolek R. A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. de la MERCED MJ. Blue Apron, Fast-Growing Pioneer in Delivering Meal Kits, Files for Public Offering. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trauma Management & Outcomes
AbbreviationJ. Trauma Manag. Outcomes
ISSN (online)1752-2897

Other styles