How to format your references using the Journal of Structural Biology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Structural Biology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonard, K.E., 2015. Perspective: Beyond the neural circuits. Nature 522, S56.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beagle, S.D., Lockless, S.W., 2015. Microbiology: Electrical signalling goes bacterial. Nature 527, 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y., Chen, G., Zhang, C., 2013. Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci. Rep. 3, 1937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Huh, J.R., Leung, M.W.L., Huang, P., Ryan, D.A., Krout, M.R., Malapaka, R.R.V., Chow, J., Manel, N., Ciofani, M., Kim, S.V., Cuesta, A., Santori, F.R., Lafaille, J.J., Xu, H.E., Gin, D.Y., Rastinejad, F., Littman, D.R., 2011. Digoxin and its derivatives suppress TH17 cell differentiation by antagonizing RORγt activity. Nature 472, 486–490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eichhorn, M.P., 2016. Natural Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
D’Ambra, P., Guarracino, M., Talia, D. (Eds.), 2010. Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dempe, S., Kalashnikov, V., Pérez-Valdés, G.A., Kalashnykova, N., 2015. Convex Bilevel Programs, in: Kalashnikov, V., Pérez-Valdés, G.A., Kalashnykova, N. (Eds.), Bilevel Programming Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications to Energy Networks, Energy Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 117–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Structural Biology: X.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. Most Americans Support Childhood Vaccines [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. FAA Evacuation Standards (No. RCED-93-165R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fink, D.C., 2017. An Exposure Assessment of Paper Dust in a Coupon Manufacturing Facility (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2016. Looking Back (and Learning From) ‘The Mary Tyler Moore Show.’ New York Times C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leonard, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Beagle and Lockless, 2015; Leonard, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beagle and Lockless, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Huh et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Structural Biology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1524

Other styles