How to format your references using the Journal of Sport & Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sport & Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stöhr, K. (2010). Vaccinate before the next pandemic? Nature, 465(7295), 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferdinand, N. K., & Opitz, B. (2014). Different aspects of performance feedback engage different brain areas: disentangling valence and expectancy in feedback processing. Scientific Reports, 4, 5986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, J., Van Dyken, J. D., & Zee, P. C. (2010). A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5986), 1700–1703.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cohen, J. C., Kiss, R. S., Pertsemlidis, A., Marcel, Y. L., McPherson, R., & Hobbs, H. H. (2004). Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5685), 869–872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naini, F. B. (2011). Facial Aesthetics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Králová-Hromadová, I. (2016). The Giant Liver Fluke, Fascioloides magna: Past, Present and Future Research. (Ľ. Juhásová & E. Bazsalovicsová, Eds.) (1st ed. 2016). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng, X., Chauhan, C., & Hou, S. X. (2013). Stem Cells in the Drosophila Digestive System. In G. Hime & H. Abud (Eds.), Transcriptional and Translational Regulation of Stem Cells (pp. 63–78). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sport & Tourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 3). After Pluto There’s Still Plenty Of The Solar System Left To Explore. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program (No. B-164031(1)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska, D. P. (2017). Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, G., & Shpigel, B. (2017, January 20). Jets Owner Is Appointed Ambassador to Britain. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stöhr, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ferdinand & Opitz, 2014; Stöhr, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ferdinand & Opitz, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Smith, Van Dyken, & Zee, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cohen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sport & Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sport Tourism
ISSN (print)1477-5085
ISSN (online)1029-5399
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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