How to format your references using the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Russo E. Victims of success. Nature. 2003;422(6929):354–355.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ratcliff WC, Denison RF. Microbiology. Alternative actions for antibiotics. Science. 2011;332(6029):547–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Travis DJ, Carleton AM, Lauritsen RG. Contrails reduce daily temperature range. Nature. 2002;418(6898):601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wahlström E, Vestergaard EK, Schaub R, et al. Electron transfer-induced dynamics of oxygen molecules on the TiO2(110) surface. Science. 2004;303(5657):511–513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wuestenberg K. Clinical Small Animal Care. Ames, Iowa, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Williams K, ed. Crossroads: History of Science, History of Art: Essays by David Speiser, vol. II. Basel: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Weiss SM, Indurkhya N, Zhang T. Finding Structure in a Document Collection. In: Indurkhya N, Zhang T, eds. Fundamentals of Predictive Text Mining. Texts in Computer Science. London: Springer; 2015:97–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How Internet Porn Affects Romantic Life. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Flores D. The EastSide Café: A liberated learning zone. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Timur S, Nordland R. Angry at European Action, Turkey Threatens to Let Migrant Flood Resume. New York Times. November 25, 2016:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques
ISSN (print)1536-0652
ISSN (online)1539-2465

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