How to format your references using the Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wurthner F. Chemistry. Generating a photocurrent on the nanometer scale. Science. 2006;314(5806):1693–1694.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sliwkowski MX, Mellman I. Antibody therapeutics in cancer. Science. 2013;341(6151):1192–1198.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Malinowski JT, Sharpe RJ, Johnson JS. Enantioselective synthesis of pactamycin, a complex antitumor antibiotic. Science. 2013;340(6129):180–182.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Samuelson JC, Chen M, Jiang F, et al. YidC mediates membrane protein insertion in bacteria. Nature. 2000;406(6796):637–641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bottomley GE. Channel Equalization for Wireless Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Foth M, Brynskov M, Ojala T, eds. Citizen’s Right to the Digital City: Urban Interfaces, Activism, and Placemaking. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stival C, Puga Molina L del C, Paudel B, et al. Sperm Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction in Mammalian Sperm. In: Buffone MG, ed. Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What Happens To A Dead Body In The Ocean? IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Bankruptcy Reform: Value of Credit Counseling Requirements Is Not Clear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yelkenci S. Algorithmic Music Composition Using Linear Algebra. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kleinfield NR, Rashbaum WK. Possible Clues In Fatal Chase, But No Motive. New York Times. October 5, 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques
ISSN (print)1536-0652
ISSN (online)1539-2465

Other styles