How to format your references using the Journal of Social and Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Social and Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roccanova L (2000) Ph.D.’s as Science Teachers: Notes from the Field. Science 290:1098a
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson KR, Ellis B (2002) A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 296:2379–2383
A journal article with 3 authors
Green DR, Galluzzi L, Kroemer G (2011) Mitochondria and the autophagy-inflammation-cell death axis in organismal aging. Science 333:1109–1112
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Holcomb M, Venn AA, Tambutté E, et al (2014) Coral calcifying fluid pH dictates response to ocean acidification. Sci Rep 4:5207

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsen D (2015) The Lean Product Playbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hays SA, Robert JS, Miller CA, Bennett I (eds) (2013) Nanotechnology, the Brain, and the Future. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Danezis G, Troncoso C (2009) Vida: How to Use Bayesian Inference to De-anonymize Persistent Communications. In: Goldberg I, Atallah MJ (eds) Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 9th International Symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 56–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Social and Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) What’s It Like To See Auroras On Other Planets? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Recovery Act: Broadband Programs Are Ongoing, and Agencies’ Efforts Would Benefit from Improved Data Quality. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstein JP (2010) Helical Symmetry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2013) A.I.G. Seeks Approval To File More Bank Suits. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roccanova 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Roccanova 2000; Johnson and Ellis 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Ellis 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Holcomb et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Social and Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Soc. Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0972-5792
ISSN (online)2199-6873

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