How to format your references using the Journal of Social and Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Social and Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sánchez-Lavega A (2005) How long is the day on Saturn? Science 307:1223–1224
A journal article with 2 authors
Knepper MA, Agre P (2004) Structural biology. The atomic architecture of a gas channel. Science 305:1573–1574
A journal article with 3 authors
Deller AT, Bailes M, Tingay SJ (2009) Implications of a VLBI distance to the double pulsar J0737-3039A/B. Science 323:1327–1329
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Moro R, Xu X, Yin S, de Heer WA (2003) Ferroelectricity in free niobium clusters. Science 300:1265–1269

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffmann W (2014) The Economic Competitiveness of Renewable Energy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yarchoan R (ed) (2014) Cancers in People with HIV and AIDS: Progress and Challenges. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Moos M-K, Bennett AC (2011) Preconceptional Health Promotion. In: Handler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N (eds) Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 65–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Social and Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Earth’s Inner Core Gives Up More Of Its Magnetic Secrets. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) ADP Systems: HCFA’s Failure to Follow Guidelines Makes Systems Effectiveness Uncertain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beyer PD (2010) Authentic Leadership in-extremis: A study of combat leadership. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM (2017) Kushner Friend Steps Down as Editor of the Observer. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sánchez-Lavega 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Knepper and Agre 2004; Sánchez-Lavega 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knepper and Agre 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Moro et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Social and Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Soc. Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0972-5792
ISSN (online)2199-6873

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