How to format your references using the Journal of Social and Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Social and Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2000) BROOKHAVEN LAB: Forbes Loses in Fallout From Reactor Fight. Science 289:2021b
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani A, Smith J (2007) Obituary: Anne McLaren (1927-2007). Nature 448:764–765
A journal article with 3 authors
Stollewerk A, Schoppmeier M, Damen WGM (2003) Involvement of Notch and Delta genes in spider segmentation. Nature 423:863–865
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schaeffer J, Burch N, Björnsson Y, et al (2007) Checkers is solved. Science 317:1518–1522

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gelbaum BR (1995) Modern Real and Complex Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hawksworth DL, Bull AT (eds) (2006) Marine, Freshwater, and Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Zanzonico P (2013) Instrumentation. In: Strauss HW, Mariani G, Volterrani D, Larson SM (eds) Nuclear Oncology: Pathophysiology and Clinical Applications. Springer, New York, NY, pp 93–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Social and Economic Development.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Life’s History Recorded On The Surface Of The Moon. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Survey To Identify Models Used by Executive Agencies in the Policymaking Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Werbeck K-U (2012) From rubble to revolutions and raves: Literary interrogations of German media ecologies. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2010) King of Shish Kabob (With Mother-in-Law’s Help). New York Times NJ11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; Surani and Smith 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Surani and Smith 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Schaeffer et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Social and Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Soc. Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0972-5792
ISSN (online)2199-6873

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