How to format your references using the Journal of Social and Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Social and Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Favero I (2015) Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound. Nature 520:441–442
A journal article with 2 authors
Straus SE, Chesney MA (2006) Science and government. Enhanced: in defense of NCCAM. Science 313:303–304
A journal article with 3 authors
Helbing D, Farkas I, Vicsek T (2000) Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature 407:487–490
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seo J-K, Kwon S-J, Cho WK, et al (2014) Type 2C protein phosphatase is a key regulator of antiviral extreme resistance limiting virus spread. Sci Rep 4:5905

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhurin VV (2011) Industrial Ion Sources. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Kim J, Shin H (eds) (2014) Algorithm & SoC Design for Automotive Vision Systems: For Smart Safe Driving System. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Renna P, Argoneto P (2011) Models for Coalition Management. In: Renna P (ed) Innovative Tools for Business Coalitions in B2B Applications: How Negotiation, Auction and Game Theory Can Support Small- and Medium-sized Business in E-business. Springer, London, pp 83–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Social and Economic Development.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) China To Encourage Its Citizens To Eat 50 Percent Less Meat. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Special Education: Additional Federal Actions Could Help Address Unique Challenges of Educating Children in Nursing Homes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillaspy KM (2012) Words of Samsara. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Singing With, Not Through, the Nose. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Favero 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Straus and Chesney 2006; Favero 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Straus and Chesney 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Social and Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Soc. Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0972-5792
ISSN (online)2199-6873

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