How to format your references using the Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cess, Robert D. 2005. “Atmospheric Science. Water Vapor Feedback in Climate Models.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5749): 795–796.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mondal, N., and J. D. Parvin. 2001. “DNA Topoisomerase IIalpha Is Required for RNA Polymerase II Transcription on Chromatin Templates.” Nature 413 (6854): 435–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sadeghi, Omid, Lev N. Zakharov, and May Nyman. 2015. “Crystal Growth. Aqueous Formation and Manipulation of the Iron-Oxo Keggin Ion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6228): 1359–1362.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
West, Michele A., Robert P. A. Wallin, Stephen P. Matthews, Henrik G. Svensson, Rossana Zaru, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Alan R. Prescott, and Colin Watts. 2004. “Enhanced Dendritic Cell Antigen Capture via Toll-like Receptor-Induced Actin Remodeling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5687): 1153–1157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cochetti, Roger. 2014. Mobile Satellite Communications Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Calcagnini, Giorgio, and Enrico Saltari, eds. 2009. The Economics of Imperfect Markets: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making. Contributions to Economics. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Lilenfeld, Lisa Rachelle Riso. 2016. “Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders.” In Bio-Psycho-Social Contributions to Understanding Eating Disorders, edited by Yael Latzer and Daniel Stein, 65–75. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “The Brain Receptor Responsible For OCD Has Been Identified.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Farmers Home Administration: Half-Billion Dollar ADP Modernization Lacks Adequate Planning and Oversight. T-IMTEC-92-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brandom, Brooke M. 2009. “Spiritual and Emotional Needs of Young Adults Who Are Members of Mainstream Protestant Churches.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel, Emily. 2017. “Murdoch Son’s Rebuke of Trump May Signal a Shift.” New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cess 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cess 2005; Mondal and Parvin 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mondal and Parvin 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sadeghi, Zakharov, and Nyman 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (West et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
ISSN (print)0827-6331
ISSN (online)2169-2610

Other styles