How to format your references using the Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kubas, Gregory J. 2006. “Chemistry. Breaking the H2 Marriage and Reuniting the Couple.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5802): 1096–1097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Youk, Hyun, and Alexander van Oudenaarden. 2009. “Growth Landscape Formed by Perception and Import of Glucose in Yeast.” Nature 462 (7275): 875–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brosco, V., Z-J Ying, and J. Lorenzana. 2013. “Exact Exchange-Correlation Potential of an Ionic Hubbard Model with a Free Surface.” Scientific Reports 3: 2172.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hermans, Erno J., Hein J. F. van Marle, Lindsey Ossewaarde, Marloes J. A. G. Henckens, Shaozheng Qin, Marlieke T. R. van Kesteren, Vincent C. Schoots, et al. 2011. “Stress-Related Noradrenergic Activity Prompts Large-Scale Neural Network Reconfiguration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6059): 1151–1153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, Steven H. 2014. ESD. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Beckert, Bernhard, Ferruccio Damiani, Frank S. de Boer, and Marcello M. Bonsangue, eds. 2013. Formal Methods for Components and Objects: 10th International Symposium, FMCO 2011, Turin, Italy, October 3-5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 7542. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Treschev, Dmitry, and Oleg Zubelevich. 2010. “Width of the Stochastic Layer.” In Introduction to the Perturbation Theory of Hamiltonian Systems, edited by Oleg Zubelevich, 93–106. Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Brain Training Can Teach Synesthesia-Like Perception.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Air Traffic Control: Voice Communications System Continues to Encounter Difficulties. IMTEC-89-39. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Echols, Katherine I. 2017. “Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership Is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2010. “More Than Just a Deli.” New York Times, August 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kubas 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kubas 2006; Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009)
  • Three authors: (Brosco, Ying, and Lorenzana 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hermans et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
ISSN (print)0827-6331
ISSN (online)2169-2610

Other styles