How to format your references using the Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnstone, Rufus A. 2002. “The Evolution of Inaccurate Mimics.” Nature 418 (6897): 524–526.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chatterjee, Saibal, and Helge Grosshans. 2009. “Active Turnover Modulates Mature MicroRNA Activity in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Nature 461 (7263): 546–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Granot, Jonathan, Ehud Nakar, and Tsvi Piran. 2003. “Astrophysics: Refreshed Shocks from a Gamma-Ray Burst.” Nature 426 (6963): 138–139.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Keppler, Frank, John T. G. Hamilton, Marc Brass, and Thomas Röckmann. 2006. “Methane Emissions from Terrestrial Plants under Aerobic Conditions.” Nature 439 (7073): 187–191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum, Joshua, and Joshua Pearl. 2009. Investment Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mullin, Gerard E., Lawrence J. Cheskin, and Laura E. Matarese, eds. 2014. Integrative Weight Management: A Guide for Clinicians. Nutrition and Health. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Coppolino, Robert N. 2016. “Response DOF Selection for Mapping Experimental Normal Modes-2016 Update.” In Dynamics of Coupled Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016, edited by Matt Allen, Randall L. Mayes, and Daniel Rixen, 33–46. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Why The Deep Space Atomic Clock Is Key For Future Space Exploration.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Internet Management: Structured Evaluation Could Help Assess Proposed Transition of Key Domain Name and Other Technical Functions. GAO-15-642. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin, Erica M. 2013. “Using Support Groups to Help Kinship Caregivers Transition Youth to Safe and Productive Community Living: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman, James. 2016. “The Other 1 Percent.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnstone 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnstone 2002; Chatterjee and Grosshans 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chatterjee and Grosshans 2009)
  • Three authors: (Granot, Nakar, and Piran 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Keppler et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
ISSN (print)0827-6331
ISSN (online)2169-2610

Other styles