How to format your references using the Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, Elie. 2013. “Deprivation: A Wake-up Call.” Nature 497 (7450): S6-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, Eric W., and British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. 2003. “Ocean Science. Whither Antarctic Sea Ice?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5648): 1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
McPhaden, Michael J., Stephen E. Zebiak, and Michael H. Glantz. 2006. “ENSO as an Integrating Concept in Earth Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5806): 1740–1745.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pupo, Gabriele, Francesco Ibba, David M. H. Ascough, Anna Chiara Vicini, Paolo Ricci, Kirsten E. Christensen, Lukas Pfeifer, et al. 2018. “Asymmetric Nucleophilic Fluorination under Hydrogen Bonding Phase-Transfer Catalysis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 360 (6389): 638–642.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe, Simón. 2017. Frontier Road. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Uden, Lorna, Emilio S. Corchado Rodríguez, Juan F. De Paz Santana, and Fernando De la Prieta, eds. 2012. Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (LTEC’12). Vol. 173. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dennis, Alex, and Michelle Marshall. 2016. “Investigations.” In Bowel Dysfunction: A Comprehensive Guide for Healthcare Professionals, edited by Brigitte Collins and Elissa Bradshaw, 33–50. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Wikileaks Vault 7 Reveals Staggering Breadth Of ‘Cia Hacking.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Tax Abatement. HRD-93-27R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, Michael A. 2017. “The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2008. “In Latest Term, Majority Grows To More Than 5 of the Justices.” New York Times, May 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bell 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Zelkowitz 2008; Gascoigne 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolff and British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. 2003)
  • Three authors: (McPhaden, Zebiak, and Glantz 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mochizuki et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship
ISSN (print)0827-6331
ISSN (online)2169-2610

Other styles