How to format your references using the Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (JRRD). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Speed T. Mathematics. A correlation for the 21st century. Science. 2011 Dec 16;334(6062):1502–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adams J, Loach T. Comment: A well-connected world. Nature. 2015 Nov 12;527(7577):S58-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patkowski K, Spirko V, Szalewicz K. On the elusive twelfth vibrational state of beryllium dimer. Science. 2009 Dec 4;326(5958):1382–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Snyder J, Slusky JS, Cava RJ, Schiffer P. How “spin ice” freezes. Nature. 2001 Sep 6;413(6851):48–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tavakoli JM. Structured Finance and Collateralized Debt Obligations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Gault D. Beginning Oracle Application Express 4.2. Cannell K, Cimolini P, D’Souza M, St. Hilaire T, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013. XX, 448 p. 555 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Umezawa T, Ragamustari SK, Ono E, Yamamura M. O-Methyltransferases Involved in Lignan Biosynthesis. In: Jetter R, editor. The Formation, Structure and Activity of Phytochemicals. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 99–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development.

Blog post
Hale T. Nike Will Release Self-Lacing “Back To The Future” Shoes For 2016 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs and INS: Information on Inspection, Infrastructure, Traffic Flow, and Security Matters at the Detroit Port of Entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Apr. Report No.: GAO-02-595R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pappenfus BJ. How frequency of change within organizations affects burnout of human resource professionals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Everyone’s Got a Different Dream. New York Times. 2017 Oct 26;RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rehabilitation Research & Development
AbbreviationJ. Rehabil. Res. Dev.
ISSN (print)0748-7711
ISSN (online)1938-1352

Other styles