How to format your references using the Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (JPN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P. Triumph of the medieval mind. Nature 2008;452:816–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ofek G, Diskin R. HIV. Expanding the breadth of an HIV-1 vaccine. Science 2014;346:1290–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasai M, Linehan MM, Iwasaki A. Bifurcation of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by adaptor protein 3. Science 2010;329:1530–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Legros M, Dehm G, Arzt E, et al. Observation of giant diffusivity along dislocation cores. Science 2008;319:1646–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perini K, Sabbion P. Urban Sustainability and River Restoration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Chiumello D, editor. Topical Issues in Anesthesia and Intensive Care. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaki J, Parekh R, Bhattacharya S. Plant Leaf Recognition Using Ridge Filter and Curvelet Transform with Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier. In: Nagar A, Mohapatra DP, Chaki N, editors. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics: ICACNI 2015, Volume 1 New Delhi: Springer India; 2016. p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.

Blog post
Taub B. Transparent Brains Illuminate The Neuronal Roots Of Pleasure And Fear [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computers in Government: We Couldn’t Do Without Them. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Jun. Report No.: 112745.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He H. Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Barry E. Dancer Held in Acid Attack on Bolshoi Director. New York Times 2013;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience
AbbreviationJ. Psychiatry Neurosci.
ISSN (print)1180-4882
ISSN (online)1488-2434
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles