How to format your references using the Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (JPN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Price C. Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapour. Nature 2000;406:290–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthews HD, Solomon S. Atmosphere. Irreversible does not mean unavoidable. Science 2013;340:438–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nesvorný D, Vokrouhlický D, Bottke WF. The breakup of a main-belt asteroid 450 thousand years ago. Science 2006;312:1490.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lowenstein TK, Timofeeff MN, Brennan ST, et al. Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: evidence from fluid inclusions. Science 2001;294:1086–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Overhauser A. Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Taboada P, editor. Sedation at the End-of-life: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
McSweeney PJ, Mehrotra K, Oh JC. A Force-Directed Layout for Community Detection with Automatic Clusterization. In: Takadama K, Cioffi-Revilla C, Deffuant G, editors. Simulating Interacting Agents and Social Phenomena: The Second World Congress Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2010. p. 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Australian’s Campaign Against Wind Farms Continues But The Research Doesn’t Stack Up [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Maritime Administration: Weaknesses Identified in Management of the Title XI Loan Guarantee Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-657.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford J. Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. Where the Party Moves From Room to Room. New York Times 2016;D9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience
AbbreviationJ. Psychiatry Neurosci.
ISSN (print)1180-4882
ISSN (online)1488-2434
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles