How to format your references using the Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (JPN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGill BJ. A test of the unified neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature 2003;422:881–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Žutić I, Cernĕ J. Physics. Chameleon magnets. Science 2011;332:1040–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ikegami H, Tsutsumi Y, Kono K. Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A. Science 2013;341:59–62.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li M, Guan S, Wu C, et al. From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks. Sci Rep 2014;4:4861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grove LC. Groups and Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1997.
An edited book
Audette JF, Bailey A, editors. Integrative Pain Medicine: The Science and Practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pain Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Neveu P, Domerg C, Fabre J, et al. Using Ontologies of Software: Example of R Functions Management. In: Lacroix Z, Vidal ME, editors. Resource Discovery: Third International Workshop, RED 2010, Paris, France, November 5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mutations In mtDNA May Not Be as Rare or Random as Previously Believed [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-697.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steinberg J. The Social Construction of Beauty: Body Modification Examined Through the Lens of Social Learning Theory [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gaitskill M. An Unknowable Truth. New York Times 2015;M2174.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience
AbbreviationJ. Psychiatry Neurosci.
ISSN (print)1180-4882
ISSN (online)1488-2434
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles