How to format your references using the Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience (JPN). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hobe M. Atmospheric science. Revisiting ozone depletion. Science 2007;318:1878–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karki BB, Stixrude LP. Viscosity of MgSiO3 liquid at Earth’s mantle conditions: implications for an early magma ocean. Science 2010;328:740–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ringstad N, Abe N, Horvitz HR. Ligand-gated chloride channels are receptors for biogenic amines in C. elegans. Science 2009;325:96–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nagaoka T, Inutsuka A, Begum K, et al. Vangl2 regulates E-cadherin in epithelial cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:6940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Reedy MA. Project Management in the Oil and Gas Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Gambescia SF. Managing A Public Speaker Bureau: A Manual for Health and Human Services Organizations. González-McDevitt E, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuhn A, Hirschmüller H, Mayer H. Multi-Resolution Range Data Fusion for Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction. In: Weickert J, Hein M, Schiele B, editors. Pattern Recognition: 35th German Conference, GCPR 2013, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 3-6, 2013 Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.

Blog post
Evans K. Growing Up Without Siblings May Affect Your Brain’s Development [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Funding: Aviation Industry Changes Affect Airport Development Costs and Financing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-658T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill L. Unique forms of knowledge and curriculum in hip-hop pedagogy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M, Pianigiani G. Agent Blames Trainer for Drug-Test Failures. New York Times 2013;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience
AbbreviationJ. Psychiatry Neurosci.
ISSN (print)1180-4882
ISSN (online)1488-2434
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry

Other styles