How to format your references using the Journal of Power Sources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Power Sources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Faist, APPLIED PHYSICS: Smaller, Faster Midinfrared Lasers, Science. 290 (2000) 1713–1714.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.S. Fauci, H.D. Marston, PUBLIC HEALTH. Toward an HIV vaccine: A scientific journey, Science. 349 (2015) 386–387.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.A. Boisvert, E. Mark-Kurik, P.E. Ahlberg, The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits, Nature. 456 (2008) 636–638.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.A. Kroodsma, J. Mayorga, T. Hochberg, N.A. Miller, K. Boerder, F. Ferretti, A. Wilson, B. Bergman, T.D. White, B.A. Block, P. Woods, B. Sullivan, C. Costello, B. Worm, Tracking the global footprint of fisheries, Science. 359 (2018) 904–908.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.J. Chapman, Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
G.T. Bonifacio, ed., Feminism and Migration: Cross-Cultural Engagements, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Huang, J. Yang, Digital Learners and Digital Teachers: Challenges, Changes, and Competencies, in: J.M. Spector, D. Ifenthaler, D.G. Sampson, P. Isaias (Eds.), Competencies in Teaching, Learning and Educational Leadership in the Digital Age: Papers from CELDA 2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Power Sources.

Blog post
S. Luntz, More Mysterious Objects Spotted In Titan’s Seas, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Science and Engineering Base: A Synthesis of Concerns About Budget and Policy Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Peacock, Design science research toward designing/prototyping a repeatable model for testing location management (LM) algorithms for wireless networking, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, The Met Stars in Its West Side Story, New York Times. (2017) AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Power Sources
AbbreviationJ. Power Sources
ISSN (print)0378-7753
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles