How to format your references using the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson B. Mercury, up-close again. Introduction. Science. 2008 Jul 4;321(5885):58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vukmirovic OG, Tilghman SM. Exploring genome space. Nature. 2000 Jun 15;405(6788):820–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petit RJ, Hu FS, Dick CW. Forests of the past: a window to future changes. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1450–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
De Smedt P, Van Meirvenne M, Herremans D, De Reu J, Saey T, Meerschman E, et al. The 3-D reconstruction of medieval wetland reclamation through electromagnetic induction survey. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wallgren A, Wallgren B. Register-Based Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Humphries P. Hereditary Retinopathies: Progress in Development of Genetic and Molecular Therapies. Humphries MM, Tam LCS, Farrar GJ, Kenna PF, Campbell M, Kiang A-S, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. VII, 46 p. 8 illus., 5 illus. in color. (SpringerBriefs in Genetics; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
von der Malsburg C. Physics and Our Intuitive Outlook on Time. In: Albeverio S, Blanchard P, editors. Direction of Time. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. Japan’s Latest Tsunami Reaction Shows Lessons Learned From Previous Disasters [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Use of Award Fees for Achieving Program Outcomes Should Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jan. Report No.: GAO-07-58.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bishop-Randol E. Outcomes of the Program of Assertive Community Treatment in Orange County, California [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goodman J. Profiles in Caution. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg.
ISSN (print)1748-6815
ISSN (online)1878-0539

Other styles