How to format your references using the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon K. Drugs: Blood battles. Nature. 2013 Jan 31;493(7434):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deuker MM, McMahon M. Cancer biology: Enzyme meets a surprise target. Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):225–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell C, Shea K, Albert R. Network models. Comment on “Control profiles of complex networks.” Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):561.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Borgia A, Borgia MB, Bugge K, Kissling VM, Heidarsson PO, Fernandes CB, et al. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex. Nature. 2018 Mar 1;555(7694):61–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Devolder P, Janssen J, Manca R. Stochastic Methods for Pension Funds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
Eiderman VY, Samokhin MV, editors. Selected Topics in Complex Analysis: The S. Ya. Khavinson Memorial Volume. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2005. VII, 224 p. (Operator Theory: Advances and Applications; vol. 158).
A chapter in an edited book
Brosio RA. Critical Theory for Schooling-Education and Society. In: Cooper K, White R, editors. The Practical Critical Educator. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D. How We Discovered The ‘Higgs Bison’, Hiding In Plain Sight In Ancient Cave Art [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Information Resources: Agency Needs to Correct Widespread Deficiencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-91-43.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klooster EC-R. Identifying differences in student traditionalities of remedial math students, adjusted for efficacy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte L. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2011 Apr 21;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg.
ISSN (print)1748-6815
ISSN (online)1878-0539

Other styles