How to format your references using the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rutishauser U. Gerald Edelman (1929-2014). Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):474.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohman MD, Hirche HJ. Density-dependent mortality in an oceanic copepod population. Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):638–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorsen T, Maerkl SJ, Quake SR. Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science. 2002 Oct 18;298(5593):580–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Field GD, Gauthier JL, Sher A, Greschner M, Machado TA, Jepson LH, et al. Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors. Nature. 2010 Oct 7;467(7316):673–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fayngold M. Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Baumann CR, Bassetti CL, Scammell TE, editors. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. XVI, 428 p. 81 illus., 12 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Meiwes KJ, Meesenburg H, Eichhorn J, Jacobsen C, Khanna PK. Changes in C and N Contents of Soils Under Beech Forests over a Period of 35 Years. In: Brumme R, Khanna PK, editors. Functioning and Management of European Beech Ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 49–63. (Ecological Studies).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Was Neil Armstrong Misquoted? Study Suggests His Accent Could’ve Been To Blame [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Compensatory Education: Difficulties in Measuring Comparability of Resources Within School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Mar. Report No.: HRD-93-37.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chitakasempornkul K. Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Villarosa L. The Wheezing That Could Signal Childhood Asthma. New York Times. 2007 May 1;H2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg.
ISSN (print)1748-6815
ISSN (online)1878-0539

Other styles