How to format your references using the Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elert E. Living with leukaemia. Nature. 2013 Jun 27;498(7455):S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marraffini LA, Sontheimer EJ. CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science. 2008 Dec 19;322(5909):1843–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maffione M, Morris A, Anderson MW. Recognizing detachment-mode seafloor spreading in the deep geological past. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2336.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luo J, Su F, Chen D, Shiloh A, Gu W. Deacetylation of p53 modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. Nature. 2000 Nov 16;408(6810):377–81.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp FL, Whalen RC. Financial Stability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Wang W, editor. Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems: Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems (ICMS2013). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XIX, 1079 p. 617 illus., 178 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; vol. 237).
A chapter in an edited book
Hersh RG, Caligor E, Yeomans FE. Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) Principles in Work with the Families of Patients with Severe Personality Disorders. In: Caligor E, Yeomans FE, editors. Fundamentals of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy: Applications in Psychiatric and Medical Settings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 91–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery.

Blog post
Felton J. US Police Are Less Respectful Towards Black Citizens, Body Cam Footage Analysis Reveals. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. D.C. Charter Schools: Strengthening Monitoring and Process When Schools Close Could Improve Accountability and Ease Student Transitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Nov. Report No.: GAO-06-73.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang Y. Sliding Mode Observer Design for Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. New Bus Shelters on the Way, Customized for Your Corner. New York Times. 2001 May 20;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg.
ISSN (print)1748-6815
ISSN (online)1878-0539

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